Which programming languages ​​do not differentiate between upper and lower case

General    paradigmimperativeimperativeimperativeimperativefeaturesCompiling depending on the platform, statically typed, memory allocation and release automatically except for the use of pointersCompiling depending on the platform, statically typed, memory allocation and release due to intensive pointer usage completely manualcompiling in platform-independent bytecode, statically typed, memory allocation and release exclusively automatically by means of "GarbageCollector"interpretive, dynamically typed, memory allocation and release exclusively automaticAreas of applicationTraining language, with extensions in Delphi®Text-based, computationally intensive applications, operating systems, hardware-related applications are possiblegraphics-based applications, platform-independent programs, web applicationsminimalist, clear scripting language, also used on the serverFilenameAny name, suffix .p or .pasAny name, suffix .cpp or .c ++Name must match the name of the class, suffix .javaAny name, suffix .pyUpper / lower caseis not differentiateda strict distinction is madea strict distinction is madea strict distinction is madeConventionsKeywords capitalized, identifier in CamelCase, often in Hungarian notation, one instruction per linelong identifiers structured by "_", often in Hungarian notation, one instruction per lineClass names always start with uppercase letters, method and attribute names start with lowercase letters, identifiers in CamelCase, constants only with uppercase letters, one instruction per linesee syntaxsyntaxSemicolon as a separator between two statements. End of the main program with "."Semicolon to end the instructionSemicolon to end the instructionLine break as instruction end, block formation by indentationstructuringprocedural programming through subroutines and functionsany mixture of procedural programming with functions and object-oriented programming with classes and methodspurely object-oriented programming with classes and methodsobject-oriented programming with classes and methods; By implicitly instantiating the __main__ class, procedural programming with functions can be simulatedblock    BEGIN ... END{ ... }{ ... }Indentation of the source text linesComments    {single or multi-line}// single line / * spread over several lines * /// single line / * spread over several lines * / / ** JavaDoc comment ** /# only single lineStandard data types_1_2, 3, 4_5, 6_7BOOLEANTRUE / FALSEbooltrue / falsebooleantrue / falseboolTrue / Falsebyte1 byte long integershort2-byte integershort2-byte integerINTEGER2-byte integerint1 word long integerint4 byte long integerint4 byte long integerLONGINT4 byte long integerlong1-2 word long integerlong8 byte long integerlongarbitrarily long integerlong long2-4 word long integerREAL4-byte floating point numberfloat1 word long floating point numberfloat4-byte floating point numberEXTENDED10-byte floating point numberdouble2 word floating point numberdouble8-byte floating point numberfloat8-byte floating point numberlong double2-4 word floating point numbercomplexcomplex numberCHAR1 bytechar1 bytechar2 bytes (Unicode)STRINGCharacter string, 256 bytes long, 1 byte per character, effectively used length in the first positionchar *Character string, pointer to the first character of a memory area terminated with NULStringUnicode string (no standard data type, but derived final class)stunchangeable sequence of characters (can be initialized as a short or long character string or as a "raw string")stringClass for strings of any length (no standard data type, but much easier to use than char *)unicodeUnicode stringARRAY [m .. n] OF TSequence of fixed length (n-m + 1) of any values ​​of type TT []Sequence of any values ​​of type T, the fixed length of which is set at the latest during initializationT []Sequence of any values ​​of type T, the fixed length of which is set at the latest during initializationtupleunchangeable sequence of any valueslistchangeable sequence of any valuesSET OF SSet of arbitrary values ​​that meet the enumerable specification S.setchangeable set of arbitrary valuesfrozensetunchangeable set of arbitrary valuesdictMapping of unique keys to any valuesNoneTyperemoves value and dynamic typing
  1. Pascal only supports strings with a maximum length of 255, while the other languages ​​allow any length within the limits of the available RAM
  2. Since C ++ is an extension of C, the data types form a superset of the structures known from C
  3. the exact range of values ​​of the numeric data types in C ++ depends on the computer architecture used
  4. the "Standard Template Library" (STL), which is part of C ++, provides additional data types, in particular also classes for set and map
  5. The standard scope of Java includes a very extensive class library which, in addition to the above-mentioned String class, also defines interfaces for set and map and implements these in different variants
  6. There is also an envelope class for the standard data types in Java, the name of which usually corresponds to the type name with an initial capital letter
  7. the value range of the arbitrarily long integer is only limited by the amount of available memory
Program structure    PROGRAM test; {Declaration part} {constants} {user-defined Data types} {global variables} {functions and procedures} {statement section} BEGIN writeln ('Hello!') END./ * Integration of libraries * / #include #include / * Determination of the used scope * / using namespace std; / * Declarations of all kinds in bel. Order * / // main program "Test" int main (int argc, char * const argv []) {cout << "Hello!" << endl; }/ * Space to integrate packages using import * / / * Space to define your own package * / public class test {/ * Declarations of all kinds in any. Order * / // main program "Test" public static void main (String [] args) {System.out.println ("Hello!"); }}################################# # Interpreter instructions, such as # # for the text coding used # #### ############################# # - * - coding: utf-8 - * - # Script program "Test" print "Hello ! " + '\ n'Declaration and value assignmentvariables 1Variables / attributes 2Attributes 3Attributes / variables 4VAR i: INTEGER; n: LONGINT; x: REAL; y: EXTENDED; c: CHAR; s: STRING; a: ARRAY [0 .. 9] OF CHAR; m: SET OF '0' .. '9'; BEGIN i: = 4711; n: = 1234567890; x: = 3.14159; y: = 1.6e-19; c: = 'A'; s: = 'Pascal'; a [0]: = 'T'; {for 1 .. 9 accordingly} m: = ['1', '3', '5', '7', '9'] END.{float x; double y; char c; char a [10]; int i = 4711; long n = 1234567890L; x = 3.14159F; y = 1.6e-19; c = 'A'; const char * s = "C ++"; a [0] = 'T'; // for 1 .. 9 accordingly}{float x; double y; char c; String s; char [10] a; int i = 4711; long n = 1234567890L; x = 3.14159F; y = 1.6e-19; c = 'A'; s = "Java"; a [0] = 'T'; // for 1 .. 9 accordingly} i = 4711 n = 1234567890L y = 1.6e-19 z = 0 + 1.5j # real + imaginary part c = 'A' s = "Python" # delete with s = None t = ('T', 'e', 's', 't') # Tuple l = [1, '+', 2.14, "Sum"] # List m = set ("Otto") # Quantity {'O', 't', 'o'} d = {"sun": "sun", "moon": "moon"}
  1. in Pascal the declaration of the variables takes place before the statement block; a distinction is made between global and local declarations
  2. In C ++, the declaration of the variables / attributes can be made anywhere in the source text, but the validity is always limited to the enclosing block
  3. In Java, the declaration of the attributes can be made anywhere in the source text, provided that this position is within a class; the validity is always limited to the enclosing block
  4. Python does not have an explicit declaration of attributes / variables; Typing takes place dynamically with the first value assignment, whereby the validity is always limited to the enclosing method (unless the keyword global is used explicitly)
User-defined Data types    TYPE Person = RECORD name: STRING; idNr: INTEGER END; VAR citizen: person; BEGIN citizen.name: = "Hans Mustermann"; buerger.idNr: = 4711 END.typedef struct person {const char * name; int id_nr; } t_person, * p_person; p_person citizen = new t_person; citizen-> name = "Hans Mustermann"; citizen-> id_nr = 4711;As a purely object-oriented language, Java only allows the definition of user-defined classes.######################################## # Although Python is an object-oriented # # language is, a user-defined # # data type can be added # # by using a tuple. # ######################################### citizen = (name, idNr) = ("Hans Mustermann", 4711)User-defined Classes    Object orientation is not part of the standard Pascal specification, but there are "Object Pascal" extensions of the language, e.g. Delphiclass person {sting name; int id_nr; public: Person (const string nm, int id) {name = nm; id_nr = id; } ~ Person () {} // empty destructor}; Person * citizen = new Person ("Hans Mustermann", 4711); delete citizen; // to shareclass Person {String name; int idNr; public person (string nm, int id) {name = nm; idNr = id; }} Person citizen = new Person ("Hans Mustermann", 4711);class Person: def __init __ (self, name, idNr): self.name = name self.idNr = idNr citizen = Person ("Hans Mustermann", 4711)Operators    sign+ -+ -+ -+ -Floating point arithm.+ - * /+ - * /Caution: ambiguous division operator+ - * /Caution: ambiguous division operator+ - * / **Python also knows the power operator "**"
Caution: ambiguous division operatorInteger arithm.+ - * DIV MOD+ - * / %+ - * / %+ - * / % **Bit arithm.NOT AND OR XOR SHR SHL~ & | ^ << >>Shift operators also used for output and input with streams~ & | ^ << >> <<< >>>Variant of the shift operators with additional signs~ & | ^ << >>allocation:== ++ -- += -= *= /= %== ++ -- += -= *= /= %== += -= *= /= %=Comparisons= <> < > <= >=== != < > <= >=== != < > <= >=== != < > <= >=Propositional logicNOT AND ORthese operators use full evaluation! && ||Caution: these operators only use short-circuit evaluation! && || ^ & |Java also knows Xor; the second variant of and, or uses full evaluationnot and orCaution: these operators only use short-circuit evaluationData access.. * ->..Memory allocationimplicitly by assignmentnew delete &plus release and address op.newimplicitly by assignmentTypecastnot generally provided(T) var(T) varT (var)Input / output    VAR num: INTEGER; write ('input:'); readln (num); write ('output:', num); writeln ('output:', num); {line feed} int num; cout << "input:"; cin >> num; cout << "output:" << num; cout << "output:" << num << endl; int num; System.out.print ("Input:"); try {BufferedReader cin = new BufferedReader (new InputStreamReader (System.in)); num = Integer.parseInt (cin.readLine ()); } catch (IOExeption e) {} System.out.print ("Output:"); System.out.println (num); // In the applet via own text fields! num = input ("input:") print "output:", num print "output:", num, '\ n' # line feed Branches_1_2_2 IF (x <> 0) {one-sided} THEN write (7 / x) IF (a MOD 2 = 0) {two-sided} THEN write ('even') ELSE write ('odd');if (x! = 0) // one-sided cout << 7 / x; if (a% 2 == 0) // two-sided cout << "even"; else cout << "odd"; if (tag == 1) // multiple pages cout << "Monday"; else if (day == 2) cout << "Tuesday"; // ... else if (day == 7) {cout << "Sunday,"; cout << "day of rest"; } else cout << "error";if (x! = 0) // one-sided System.out.print (7 / x); if (a% 2 == 0) // two-sided System.out.print ("even"); else System.out.print ("odd"); if (tag == 1) // multi-page System.out.print ("Monday"); else if (tag == 2) System.out.print ("Tuesday"); // ... else if (tag == 7) {System.out.print ("Sunday,"); System.out.print ("day of rest"); } else System.out.print ("error");if x! = 0: # one-sided print 7 / x if a% 2 == 0: # two-sided print "even" else print "odd" if tag == 1: # multi-sided print "Monday" elif tag == 2: print "Tuesday" # ... elif day == 7: print "Sunday,", print "day of rest" else: print "error"
  1. In Pascal, the semicolon is a separator between two instructions, so there must be no semicolon before "ELSE"
  2. In C ++ and Java, the semicolon is the end character of a statement, so "else" must be preceded by a semicolon
Case distinction    CASE tag OF 1: write ('Monday'); 2: write ('Tuesday'); {...} 7: BEGIN write ('Sunday,'); write ("day of rest") END; OTHERWISE: writeln ('error'); END;switch (tag) {case 1: cout << "Monday"; break; case 2: cout << "Tuesday"; break; // ... case 7: cout << "Sunday,"; cout << "day of rest"; break; default: cout << "error" << endl; }switch (tag) {case 1: System.out.print ("Monday"); break; case 2: System.out.print ("Tuesday"); break; // ... case 7: System.out.print ("Sunday,"); System.out.print ("day of rest"); break; default: System.out.println ("error"); }see multiple branchingCounting loops    FOR i: = 0 TO 8 DO sum: = sum + i; FOR k: = 9 DOWNTO 1 DO pro: = pro * 2; FOR digit: = 1 TO 9 DO IF digit in [2,3,5,7] THEN write (digit * digit);for (i = 0; i <9; i ++) sum = sum + i; for (k = 9; k> 0; k--) pro * = 2; // short form int nums [] = {2, 3, 5, 7}; int number = 4; for (int * pointer = nums; pointer <=; for (i = 0; i <9; i ++) sum = sum + i; for (k = 9; k> 0; k--) pro * = 2; // short form int [] range = {2, 3, 5, 7}; for (int digit: range) System.out.print (digit * digit);for i in range (0,10): sum = sum + 1 for k in range (9,0, -1): pro * = 2 for digit in (2,3,5,7): print digit ** 2 Loop with initial condition    WHILE (a> 0) DO BEGIN b: = b * 2; a: = a - b; END;while (a> 0) {b = b * 2; a = a - b; }while (a> 0) {b = b * 2; a = a - b; }while a> 0: b = b * 2 a = a - bLoop with end condition    REPEAT a: = a + 12; b: = 2 * a; UNTIL b> 1000;do {a = a + 12; b = 2 * a; } while (b <= 1000);do {a = a + 12; b = 2 * a; } while (b <= 1000);a = a + 12 # Construction aid, since command b = 2 * a # not available in Python while b <= 1000: a = a +12 b = 2 * aSubstructuresFunctions, subroutinesFunctions, methodsMethodsMethods, functionsPROCEDURE exchange (VAR a: real; VAR b: real); VAR help: real; BEGIN help: = a; a: = b; b: = help {separator; unnecessary} END; FUNCTION f (x: integer): extended; BEGIN f: = sqrt (x) END;void exchange (float & a, float & b) {// & denotes reference parameter float help; help = a; a = b; b = help; // EndCharacter; necessary} double f (short x) {return sqrt (x); }void exchange (float a, float b) {// big F float help; help = a; a = b; b = help; // EndCharacter; required} double f (short x) // use of the Math class {return Math.sqrt (x); }def exchange (x, y): # there are only functions return y, x import math # module for math. Functions def f (x): return math.sqrt (x) Complete program    PROGRAM primality test; VAR number: INTEGER; FUNCTION prim (nn: INTEGER): BOOLEAN; VAR OK: BOOLEAN; k: INTEGER; BEGIN ok: = (nn> 1) AND (nn MOD 2 <> 0); k: = 3; WHILE (k * k <= nn) DO BEGIN ok: = ok AND (nn MOD k <> 0); k: = k + 2; END; prim: = (nn = 2) OR ok END; BEGIN write ('number = "); read (number); IF prime (number) THEN writeln (number,' is a prime number) ELSE writeln (number, 'is not a prime number) END. {Input: number = 49} {output : 49 is not prime}// Demo program prime number test // -------------------------- # include # include using namespace std; bool prim (int nn) {bool ok = (nn> 1) && (nn% 2! = 0); int k = 3; while (k * k <= nn) {ok = ok && (nn% k! = 0); k = k + 2; } return (nn == 2) || OK; } int main (int argl, const char * argv []) {int number; cout << "number ="; cin >> number; cout << number; if (prim (number)) {cout << "is a prime number" << endl; } else {cout << "is not a prime number" << endl; } return 0; } // input: number = 49 // output: 49 is not a prime numberpackage prime test; import java.io.BufferedReader; import java.io.IOException; import java.io.InputStreamReader; public class Main {public static boolean prim (int nn) {boolean ok = (nn> 1) && (nn% 2! = 0); int k = 3; while (k * k; <= nn) {ok = ok && (nn% k! = 0); k = k + 2; } return ok || (nn == 2); } public static void main (String [] args) {int number = 0; System.out.print ("number ="); try {BufferedReader cin = new BufferedReader (new InputStreamReader (System.in)); number = Integer.parseInt (cin.readLine ()); } catch (IOException e) {} System.out.print (String.valueOf (number)); if (prim (number)) {System.out.println ("is prime number"); } else {System.out.println ("is not a prime number"); }}} // input: number = 49 // output: 49 is not a prime number# Demo program prime number test # -------------------------- # - * - coding: utf-8 - * - def prim (nn): ok = (nn> 1) and (nn% 2! = 0) k = 3 while k * k <= nn: ok = ok and nn% k! = 0 k = k + 2 return (nn == 2) or ok def main (): number = input ("number =") if prim (number): print number, "is a prime number" else: print number, "is not a prime number" main () # input: number = 49 # output : 49 is not a prime number