Where can I get UNIX

A. Willemer
How to become a UNIX guru
Know-how for Unix / Linux users: Introduction, shell, commands, help, working with files, editors, regular expressions, useful tools, hardware.

Tools, system start, manage users, configure hardware, install software, data backup, tuning, kernel

Client / server systems, TCP / IP, routing, IPv6, Internet services, DHCP, web servers, firewalls

Set up and use the graphical user interface of UNIX

Automating tasks through shell scripts.

Interpreter, syntax, variables, control, functions, UNIX calls, GUIs with Tk

C compiler, analysis tools, CVS, yacc, diff

Use UNIX commands in your own programs

Further reading on UNIX and LINUX



The situation is completely different with MacOS X. Although the new version of the Macintosh operating system has been given a UNIX substructure, the graphical user interface was therefore not based on the X Window System. Instead, the Macintosh desktop follows the tradition of the classic Macintosh surface. The Mac has always been a single-user system, originally it wasn't even a multitasking system. The Mac has always been designed to be as simple and intuitive as possible. It is unlikely that Apple will switch to the X Window System. Even if everything that has been said about the X Window System does not apply to the MacOS X desktop, it is interesting that a UNIX is used as a robust substructure for a single-user system.

A Macintosh can still be recognized by the firmly anchored menu bar at the top of the screen, the menu of which is determined by the program currently running in the foreground. In the picture CDFinderhttp: //www.cdfinder.de is the active program. Accordingly, you can see its menu in the top bar, easily recognizable by the fact that the menu entry to the right of the apple is called »CDFinder«. The CDFinder search mask, which you can use to search for files in a CD archive, can be seen in the window at the top right.

The system settings can be seen in the large window on the left. This opens the configuration dialogs. You can see the subdivision by topic. A terminal window can be seen at the front left and bottom right. The program is currently running in the session on the left, the input prompt is shown in the session on the right.

At the bottom right you can see the file manager of MacOS X, which is called the Mac Finder. The Finder can display its files as symbols or line by line, as shown here with the mini symbol. Further properties of the files can also be seen in this display. At the top right you can see drives. You can configure the Finder to display all active file systems on the desktop. The finder can also burn freshly inserted blank CDs if the user so wishes.

The opened menu shows that everything is transparent on the Mac's new desktop.

At the bottom of the picture you can see the “Dock” of Mac OS X. It contains a series of program symbols to the left of the separator. Some of them are already there after the installation, but the user can add as many of his own as desired. In addition, all programs started from the desktop appear there. You can recognize them by a small triangle below the symbol. The part of the dock to the right of the dividing line contains documents and the trash. Here, too, the user can drag everything into it. If you long-click an icon in the dock (i.e. click and hold), a menu appears with a list of all windows of the program, and some other commands (exit, hide, etc.) programs can also influence the icon displayed in the dock during operation in order to display status information etc.

Since Mac OS X is not built on top of X Window, it does not currently support multiple virtual workspaces, so there is no toggling between them. After all, the MacOS can address any number of existing screens and combine them into a large, coherent desktop.

A small sample session

The task of the following sample session should be to log in, open and close a terminal window, log out and, last but not least, shut down the computer in a controlled manner.

MacOS X is primarily a single user system. In this respect, there is usually no need to log in after switching on the computer. You only have to log in with your user password and password if your computer is integrated into a network or if the administrator has configured it accordingly.

If the terminal is already stored as an icon in the dock, it just has to be clicked on. Otherwise, you can open a new Finder window with Cmd-N, in which either the mounted volumes or the contents of the user's home directory appear. In both cases you can use the menu command “Go to Folder” to enter the path “/ Applications / Utilities” and the contents of this folder will be displayed. This is started by double-clicking on "Terminal".

To log off from the system, simply click in the Apple menu, which is the menu under the blue apple in the top left, on the command »Log off« and confirm the prompt.

Programs for MacOS X

The following programs are supplied with Mac OS X:

  • [iTunes]
    Comprehensive software for creating, managing and playing mp3 files and other sound files. iTunes also plays the audio CDs in the Mac OS and is used to transmit data to portable mp3 players such as the iPod. The program can also burn audio and mp3 CDs by itself.
  • [iPhoto]
    Software for shopping at Rheinwerk and managing images. The program can also download them directly from digital photo cameras.
  • [Address Book]
    Program for managing addresses. The program is also used by mail and other components so that you don't have to enter your addresses multiple times.
  • [iMovie]
    Comprehensive and very easy to use program for cutting films. The program loads the data straight away from the digital video camera and sends it back after processing. The software only supports FireWire cameras.
  • [TextEdit]
    TextEdit is a small text program that unfortunately saves all texts in Rich Text Format (RTF). Unfortunately, this makes it unusable for editing typical UNIX files.
  • [Utilities]
    Contains further utilities such as console, terminal, Disk Copy (for creating, mounting and burning of disk images of all kinds), Disk Utility (graphic replacement of fsck and newfs, including the possibility of partitioning disks), Process Viewer, Print Center ( for managing printer queues) and the NetInfo Manager for managing users network-wide.
Your opinion?