One of the festivities is attending SRM University

Description:
Objective and reason for the project

Estimates of the potential show that in forestry and the open landscape there are large, as yet unused resources for bioenergy production. However, forest wood has so far only played a minor role in the field of bioenergy generation due to the high production costs in comparison to old or industrial waste wood. The overriding objective of this research, development and demonstration project is therefore to further develop existing and innovative technologies and organizational solutions for the provision of energy wood for a specific region, with the involvement of all actors involved, and to link them together so that an optimal regional Mobilization, provision and logistics concept for energy wood from the forest and the landscape is created, which is implemented in an exemplary manner.


Presentation of the work steps and the methods used In a first work step, a survey among operators of wood-fired heating (power) plants in the model region defines their requirements for the raw material energy wood and its provision in terms of quality, delivery quantities, delivery time and security of supply as well as cost level. Following a specification and differentiation of the sustainably usable energy wood potential from the forest and the landscape, the harvest and provision concepts already implemented in the model region are analyzed in order to identify existing weak points, but also to identify existing, promising approaches to identify and develop. Based on these results, alternative harvesting, preparation and logistics concepts that have not yet been implemented in the model region are presented, tested in practical trials and analyzed with regard to resource development, sustainability, environmental compatibility, economic efficiency and social acceptance. As a result, recommendations for the selection of the best possible harvesting and preparation process for forest energy wood under certain conditions of use are developed for and with the actors in the bioenergy market. Organizational and technical solutions that were assessed as sensible and promising in the first, preparatory part of the study, are put into practice in cooperation with the project partners involved. This implementation is evaluated during the implementation phase with regard to environmental effects, economic efficiency and acceptance.


Results and discussion

Survey of the operators of wood heating (power) plants
Of the factories surveyed (N = 85, of which 38% answered) 65% are under municipal control, 35% are operated by private companies. Among the communal plants, 20% were wood-fired heating plants and 80% were pure wood-fired heating plants. In contrast, 27% of the plants operated by private companies were wood-fired power plants and 73% heating plants. The survey showed that compared to waste wood, sawmill residues and landscape maintenance wood, forest wood has so far only represented a small proportion of 9% of the total biomass volume for thermal utilization and that this is mainly in the small to medium-sized wood heating plants (0.5 MWtherm to 1.5 MWtherm) is used. A dependency of the origin of the biomass on the type of operator cannot be seen. The proportion of woodchippings from the forest will increase in the coming years, however, as there is still great potential here and as competition for the raw material from new wood-fired heating (power) plants, the production of pellets and the wood industry is increasing. In the future, too, the greatest demand for wood chips is to be expected in winter, since plants with a year-round wood chip requirement in summer usually rely on internal raw material sources. So far 40% of the plants have based their own standards for the delivery of wood chips, i. H. the qualitative requirements for the raw material are optimized for the respective plant. In order to create a uniform, objective delivery basis that is binding for all parties, the standards developed by the Quality Management Wood Heating Plants (QM) work group should be used more intensively, which enable the delivery of a precisely defined raw material, which so far only applies to 7% of the plants be used.
It was found that less than 10% of the wood-fired heating (power) plants have their own chopper at the plant, as there is usually no option for stationary operation of their own chopper at the plant (space requirement, noise / dust nuisance for residents), but also no need is seen. The chopping of the wood and the transport of the wood chips have so far been in the hands of independent entrepreneurs, which has proven to be the most advantageous solution for all parties. So far, rather short-term (12 months), bilateral supply contracts have been the rule. There are only a few binding, long-term delivery agreements. Longer-term contracts would be desirable for both parties for reasons of planning security, for example. For reasons of transparency, the delivery of wood chips should and will increasingly be billed according to the amount of heat produced in each case. The return of ash to the forest has so far not been very widespread, as larger plants in particular are often supplied with wood from different sources (e.g. landscape maintenance wood, sawdust wood, waste wood and forest wood), since the fuel for returning ashes may only consist of forest wood. From an ecological and economic point of view, the ashes should definitely be returned to the forest.
Investigation of the quality of wood chips from forest wood and landscape conservation wood
When examining the quality of wood chips from forest wood and landscape conservation wood, it became clear that their water content (average 42% (forest wood) and 45% (landscape management wood)) are comparable with the results of other studies, with the range of water content in wood chips Forest wood is significantly larger. The requirements of the standards of the QM wood heating plants and of the CEN / TC 335, but not the requirements of the Austrian standard, can thus be met. It can be assumed that the water content decreases with increasing storage time, even if this relationship turned out to be less tight in the investigations carried out. A strong influence of the weather situation (rain / snow) and the storage area (sunny / shady or well / poorly ventilated) can be seen here. With regard to the chunkiness of the wood chips, the requirements of the QM wood heating plant are not met, as none of the samples reached the required main proportion of 80%. In contrast, the requirements of CEN / TC 335 for the required main proportion of 80% (with limit values ​​changed at the same time) are met by more than 85% of the samples. The lumpiness is influenced in particular by the type of tree (softwood / hardwood) and the diameter of the wood (thicker wood with less fine and bark content).
The wood chips made from landscape conservation wood were subjected to further examinations. The calorific value of these wood chips with an average of 19.1 MJ / kg shows no major deviations from the values ​​known for forest wood. This also applies to the ash content (on average 1.6%). The heavy metal content showed clear differences depending on the origin, but was contrary to expectations in all cases (despite the location of some test stocks on roads with heavy traffic) at the "normal level".
Assessment and localization of the regional energy wood accumulation from the forest
As a basis for concrete decisions in the energy sector, regional and local information on the amount of wood available and usable for energy purposes with a real local reference is essential. Potential investors and operators, but also sponsoring institutions, require specific information and evidence of which fuel wood quantities can be sustainably provided where. With the "Freiburg method" developed in the project, an uncomplicated and quick estimate of the amount of energy wood from the forest can be made, differentiated according to treatment types for the respective forest development types in the region. It also enables localization and spatial analysis via GIS as well as spatial and mass visualization of the biomass accumulation in the region.
With conventional maintenance, in addition to the previous use, an average of 1.5 cubic meters per hectare / year can be made available in the project area for energy recovery as wood chips. This potential can be increased to 3.9 cubic meters m.R./ha / year through so-called trunk wood plus maintenance (renouncing the maintenance of industrial wood). This means that in the Black Forest - Breisgauer Bucht project area (forest districts Staufen, Waldshut West and Freiburg municipal forestry office) approx. A comparison of the potential analysis with the felling of firewood practiced today in the project area shows that this has a different degree of influence on the actually realizable energy wood accrual. While in the Staufen forest district, for example, only 2.03 Fm oR / ha / year remain for additional energetic use in the form of wood chips after deduction of the firewood that has already been processed today, in the Waldshut West forest district at least 3.98 Fm oR / ha / year can be used energetically without this having an impact on the amount of firewood already used. In contrast, in the Freiburg city forest, in addition to the already very intensive use of firewood there, only limited amounts of energy wood can be provided in the form of wood chips in the mountain forest.
Estimation of the amount of energy wood from the landscape
In order to estimate the quantitative still largely unknown potential of landscape conservation wood for energetic utilization, a new approach was developed with the combination of aerial photo analysis and terrestrial measurements. The average biomass accumulation of the most important wood types recorded in the open landscape (tree hedge, wood strips, pre-forest, shrub hedge and riparian wood) can therefore be estimated at just under 300 Srm / ha. In a structurally comparable study area in Rhineland-Palatinate (size: approx. 11 km2), which was analyzed as part of the project, with a total area of ​​wood types in the open landscape of 18 hectares, approx a 20-year cycle of use corresponds to approx. 295 Srm / year. This incidence is reduced by ecological, legal, nature conservation and other restrictions by 36% to approx. 190 Srm / year. Applied to the area of ​​the Hochschwarzwald - Breisgauer Bucht area (districts of Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald and Waldshut as well as the city of Freiburg), this would result in a biomass accumulation of almost 32,000 Srm of landscape conservation wood, which could be sustainably harvested annually (corresponds to approx. 2.88 million liters of heating oil ). As part of this sub-project, optimization potentials in harvesting and logistics were identified so that in the future it should also be possible to generate cost recovery contributions through the sale of the wood chips when providing wood chips from landscape conservation wood.
Optimization of the supply chains for energy wood from the forest
Innovative harvesting methods on the plain
As a method that has not yet been investigated in Germany so far, trial operations with harvesters with felling-collector units were carried out in first-thinned pine stands and in the middle oak forest. The harvest rates achieved are between 17 Srm / h RAZ and 19 Srm / h RAZ. This means that the performance of these systems is approx. 15% below the performance of conventional harvester systems. Nevertheless, these cutting units are a real alternative to conventional harvester units with costs of € 6.50 per cubic meter to € 7.60 per cubic meter, particularly due to their lower susceptibility to failure, especially in stands with a pronounced shrub layer and due to their low maintenance requirements in first thinned stands without an assortment maintenance Chainsaws.
Other harvesting systems, such as For example, a combined felling-skidding machine turned out to be less suitable for use in the provision of energy wood within the scope of the project. With costs of just under € 11 per cubic meter for harvesting and bringing the chipping material to the forest road (without chopping!), There is currently no cost coverage. The main reason for the relatively high preparation costs is that the machine is neither optimized for harvesting nor for bringing wood. That proved to be the case
Attached felling gripper unit on the one hand when felling is relatively weak and prone to failure, on the other hand
in turn, it is clearly inferior to conventional grippers when loading the stanchion cage. However, this system is also justified, since, for example, the provision of firewood in the same experiment could generate net sales between 11 and 16 € / efm.
Innovative harvesting methods on the slope
In several test runs with a short-distance cable crane in spruce thinned stands on the steep slope, it was possible to show that even under these difficult conditions with total costs between 9 € / srm and 10 € / srm, a cost-covering provision of wood chips free forest road as a by-product to trunk wood can be realized. The transport of the chipping material to a central location in the forest by a forwarder proved to be particularly advantageous. The resulting additional costs of just under € 3 per cubic meter could be more than offset by the significantly higher performance of the chipper due to the smooth logistics. While chopping on the forest road cost about € 5.30 per cubic meter, the cost of chopping in a central location in the forest fell to less than half at € 2 per cubic meter!
In addition to this, the provision of energy wood from crown material as a by-product for trunk wood extraction was investigated in a further study in thick fir trees on the steep slope. A rope excavator was used to move the wood up to Waldstrasse and support the motor-manual processing on Waldstrasse. As a result, it can be stated that the cost-effectiveness of the process with total costs for the logs of 17 € / efm to 19 € / efm is definitely given, but that the provision of energy wood from thick wood crowns under current market conditions at costs between 12, € 60 / srm and € 16.30 / srm is not yet economical.
Optimized chopping procedures
Another study examined the optimal location for the chopping process. Chopping on the Rückegasse was compared with chopping on the forest road. It became clear that in the present case (old oak), chopping on the Rückegasse costs a total of € 9.30 per cubic meter (wood chips, free forest road) and is € 1.30 per cubic meter cheaper than chopping on the Waldstrasse, although there was no preconcentration of the chipping material on the area. In spite of the higher pre-concentration of the chipping material, the output due to the lower motorization of the chopper used on the Waldstraße was almost 10% below the output that was achieved when chopping on the Rückegasse. In combination with the logging costs for the chopping material of 1.93 € / cubic meter, which are not required when chopping on the logging lane, the overall result is higher overall provisioning costs.
A further, stronger pre-concentration of the chipping material and the creation of storage spaces for swap containers for faster removal of full containers were identified as the main starting points for optimizing chopping on Waldstrasse. In the present studies, it was possible to reduce the chopping costs by more than 50% through optimized logistics. With regular provision of wood chips from the forest, the establishment of permanent chopping sites in the forest with ideal logistical conditions for the chipper and the transport vehicles should also be considered. In order to optimize the logistics, it is even advisable to temporarily store the wood chips if this, for example, avoids waiting times for the transporter at the heating plant. The resulting shorter downtime for the hacker can reduce chopping costs by up to 15%!
Intermediate transport of chipping material
Another sub-project focused on the question of whether the costs for chopping with a preconcentration of the chipping material in a central place by intermediate transport with a long timber truck can be reduced to such an extent that the additional costs for intermediate transport are at least offset by the lower chopping costs can.
The intermediate transport of thick fir timber crowns with the long timber truck on forest roads on steep slopes cost an average of around € 1.70 / cubic meter for distances of up to 3.6 km (one-way driving distance). In combination with the chopping costs (1.30 € / cubic meter or 2.50 € / cubic meter), the provision of the wood chips cost a total of 3.00 € / cubic meter or 4.20 € / cubic meter. If the crowns had been chopped directly on the forest road, significantly higher preparation costs would have been expected due to the disadvantageous topography (long distances of the container vehicles, partly backwards).The chopping costs on the forest road under comparable conditions (steep slope) for chipping material from spruce thinnings due to long downtimes of the chipper due to the lack of empty containers were around 5.20 € / cubic meter and thus more than 170% higher!
During the intermediate transport of chopped material with a long timber truck in 40 year old spruce stands, depending on the processing and maintenance variant, costs for the intermediate transport of 1.20 € / cubic meter to 3.20 € / cubic meter were incurred, whereby the costs were particularly dependent on the loading volume of the truck. On the other hand, the costs reacted only disproportionately to a change in the transport distance. The costs for the provision of wood chips (i.e. transport and chopping) averaged € 4.50 / cubic meter. At the same time, in this way, for. For example, the chipping material from higher forest locations is also transported to lower-lying storage areas that are free of snow even in winter, thus ensuring the supply of raw materials even in unfavorable weather conditions. It was also shown that the alternatively possible intermediate transport with the forwarder on the forest road, depending on the nature of the chipping material (influence on the loading volume!), Is advantageous up to a one-way driving distance between 0.9 km and 1.8 km, since the reloading of the There is no need for chipping material on the log truck. The use of a long timber truck is only recommended for intermediate transport for longer driving distances.
In conclusion, it can be said that the provision of wood chips today is on the verge of economic efficiency, but that so far only low net revenues can be expected in this area for forestry. If energy prices continue to rise, however, the provision of wood chips from the wood will also be an independent, profitable business area for many forest companies in the foreseeable future.
Approaches to increasing the amount of energy wood: intensive thinning / trunk wood plus concept
Both through intensified thinning as well as through a change in maintenance (trunk wood plus concept), depending on the stand situation (depending on the type of forest development or treatment type), considerable additional quantities of round and energy wood can be realized. Although the use of weaker product ranges also increases the unit costs of provision, the higher volumes generated by intensified thinning for forestry mean that higher net area revenues can be achieved compared to conventional thinning. A diversion of industrial wood assortments into energetic recovery (trunk wood plus concept) does not (yet) make sense from an economic point of view (price ratio energy wood / industrial wood). The responsible forest staff and the forest owners assessed the forest appearance of the intensively thinned stands as absolutely satisfactory, and any endangerment of the silvicultural objectives could be excluded. In particular, the additional use of crown material for energetic recovery leads to a significantly increased export of nutrients, so that a decision has to be made on the extent of an intensified use of energy wood depending on the respective location, whereby measures for fertilization or nutrient return must also be discussed.
Energetic utilization of biomass from nature conservation / state conservation interventions
The use of biomass, which arises during nature conservation or land conservation interventions as well as in the context of calamity uses, e.g. to combat bark beetles, opens up new, additional potentials that have so far only been used to a very limited extent.
As part of a sub-project for the maintenance and rehabilitation of overaged coppice forests, a potential biomass accumulation of 650 Srm / ha to 710 Srm / ha could be determined. As a result, these coppice forests could be transferred back to stages and structures that correspond to their traditional management and thus their special habitat structure and diversity can be preserved.
The same applies to the use of the biomass accumulating on former pasture fields as part of de-thinning measures: By evaluating aerial photographs, it was found that the area of ​​open pasture fields in the municipality of Bernau (size of the landscape section considered: 9 km2) has been due to natural succession in recent decades decreased by 45% from 230 ha in 1968 to 125 ha in 2001. During the same period, the areas heavily covered by tree cover (degree of covering 75%) increased by more than 75 ha from 569 ha to 645 ha. Since the trees that are stagnant in these areas are often of poor quality, and therefore not suitable for higher-quality use, e.g. as sawwood, due to their strong knots and shapes, a high potential of biomass for energetic use can be tapped here for individual communities in the Black Forest. For example, a total of around 2,300 Srm per year could be harvested on the areas of the municipality of Bernau. In a further sub-project it could also be shown that with total costs between 7 € / srm and 9.60 € / srm for the provision of wood chips free forest road it is possible to generate cost recovery contributions. This means that there is the possibility of subsidizing comparable land conservation measures to a lesser extent in the future, or of maintaining a larger area with the same funding.
The production of wood chips in the course of calamity exploitation due to bark beetle infestation can, according to the knowledge gained, in many cases be designed to cover costs. This is especially true in comparison to the previous procedure in which the material is collected by hand on the surface and burned. Here, too, it should be noted that the costs of providing the chopping material on the Rückegasse at € 4.70 per square meter are around € 1 per square meter compared to backing up the chipping material and chopping on the forest road with a total cost of 5.70 € / sm.
By using the biomass for energy from the sources of nature conservation and state maintenance investigated in this project, based on calculations by the Baden-Württemberg Ministry of Economics (2003) in relation to the total area of ​​Baden-Württemberg, at least 0.35% of the primary energy demand in Baden-Württemberg could be achieved. Württemberg or 2.5% of the heating oil requirement of households and other consumers.


Public relations and presentation

As part of the project, several project meetings were held with the project partners and stakeholders involved in cooperation with the Forestry Research and Research Institute in Baden-Württemberg. On 3 afternoons, the current project results were presented and discussed with the project partners. As part of these meetings, the wishes and suggestions of those present regarding the project and its course were asked, and the further procedure was discussed and coordinated together. The high level of interest and active participation in these events show that the project investigated a topic that is very popular in practice and the results of which are highly relevant to the public. In addition, the results of the project were presented to representatives of the wood and paper industry and discussed with them at several meetings. Here, too, the topic met with widespread interest and sparked intense discussions. In addition, the results will be presented to the public on September 20 and 21, 2007, as part of a two-day conference on energy wood in Freiburg.
At the Institute for Forest Use and Forest Work Science - as well as at the Forestry Experimental and Research Institute Baden-Württemberg - research focused on the field of bioenergy, so that, with the help of the findings from the project, the numerous inquiries from home and abroad Abroad with regard to the provision of wood chips from the forest and the landscape, we can provide a well-founded and expert answer and thus valuable support for the expansion of renewable energies can be given. For example, the wood energy operating company Zell received technical advice on setting up the wood chip supply for the local heating network in Zell im Wiesental, as did the city of Laichingen on the logistics optimization for the municipal heating plant. In addition, the findings of the present project flowed into other projects of the DBU at the Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, but also z. B. in projects of the Ökoinstitut Freiburg or the Fischer-Dürr-Stiftung. Another project for which the results of this project are highly relevant is, for example, the EU-Life project Rohrhardsberg, Obere Elz and Wilde Gutach (project owner: Regional Council Freiburg), which is divided into sub-projects (processing at the Institute for Forest Use and Forest Work Science ) is also concerned with the energetic use of biomass and is based in part on the results of this project.
The results and findings of the project were also presented to a broad public outside of the project meetings in the context of numerous lectures and through a lively publication activity in relevant specialist journals.
In addition, as part of the project, several diploma, master’s and term papers were worked on by students from the Faculty of Forest and Environmental Sciences at the Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg and scientifically supervised and organizationally supported by employees of the Institute for Forest Use and Forest Work Science. They act as multipliers at their current jobs and continue to drive the expansion of bioenergy.
Numerous students were also able to vividly and vividly convey the topic of bioenergy and the entire supply chain from the forest to the heating plant in numerous lectures and during several excursions to project partners (Holzwerke Dold, Markgräfler Häckselzug).


Conclusion

It can be said that the supply of wood chips is at the limit of economic efficiency today, but that so far only low net revenues can be expected for forestry in this area. If energy prices continue to rise, however, the provision of wood chips from the wood will also be an independent, profitable business area for many forest companies in the foreseeable future.
Approaches to increasing the amount of energy wood: intensive thinning / trunk wood plus concept
Both through intensified thinning, as well as through a changed maintenance (trunk wood plus concept), depending on the stand situation (depending on the type of forest development or treatment type), considerable additional quantities of round and energy wood can be realized. Although the use of weaker product ranges also increases the unit costs of the provision, higher net area revenues can be achieved in comparison to conventional thinning due to the higher volume due to intensified thinning for forestry. A diversion of industrial wood assortments into energetic recovery (trunk wood plus concept) does not (yet) make sense from an economic point of view (price ratio energy wood / industrial wood). The responsible forest staff and the forest owners assessed the forest appearance of the intensively thinned stands as absolutely satisfactory, and any endangerment of the silvicultural objectives could be excluded. In particular, the additional use of crown material for energetic recovery leads to a significantly increased export of nutrients, so that a decision has to be made on the extent of an intensified use of energy wood depending on the respective location, whereby measures for fertilization or nutrient return must also be discussed.
Energetic utilization of biomass from nature conservation / state conservation interventions
The use of biomass, which arises during nature conservation or land conservation interventions as well as in the context of calamity uses, e.g. for bark beetle control, opens up new, additional potentials that have so far only been used to a very limited extent.
In the context of a sub-project for the maintenance or rehabilitation of overaged coppice forests, a potential biomass accumulation of 650 Srm / ha to 710 Srm / ha could be determined. As a result, these coppice forests could be transferred back to stages and structures that correspond to their traditional management and thus their special habitat structure and diversity can be preserved.
The same applies to the use of the biomass accumulating on former pasture fields as part of de-thinning measures: By evaluating aerial photographs, it was found that the area of ​​open pasture fields in the municipality of Bernau (size of the landscape section considered: 9 km2) has been due to natural succession in recent decades decreased by 45% from 230 ha in 1968 to 125 ha in 2001. During the same period, the areas heavily covered by tree cover (degree of covering 75%) increased by more than 75 ha from 569 ha to 645 ha. Since the trees that are stagnant in these areas are often of poor quality, and therefore not suitable for higher-quality use, e.g. as sawwood, due to their strong knots and shapes, a high potential of biomass for energetic use can be tapped here for individual communities in the Black Forest. In total, around 2,300 Srm could be harvested per year on the areas of the municipality of Bernau, for example. In a further sub-project it could also be shown that with total costs between 7 € / srm and 9.60 € / srm for the provision of wood chips free forest road it is possible to generate cost recovery contributions. This means that there is the possibility of subsidizing comparable land conservation measures to a lesser extent in the future, or of maintaining a larger area with the same funding.
The production of wood chips in the course of calamity exploitation due to bark beetle infestation can, according to the knowledge gained, in many cases be designed to cover costs. This is especially true in comparison to the previous procedure, in which the material is collected by hand on the surface and burned. Here, too, it should be noted that the costs of providing the chopping material on the Rückegasse at € 4.70 per square meter are around € 1 per square meter compared to backing up the chipping material and chopping on the forest road with a total cost of 5.70 € / sm.
By utilizing the biomass for energy from the sources of nature conservation and state maintenance investigated within the scope of this project, based on calculations by the Baden-Württemberg Ministry of Economics (2003) in relation to the total area of ​​Baden-Württemberg, at least 0.35% of the primary energy demand in Baden-Württemberg could be achieved. Württemberg or 2.5% of the heating oil requirement of households and other consumers.


Public relations and presentation

As part of the project, several project meetings were held with the project partners and stakeholders involved in cooperation with the Forestry Research and Research Institute in Baden-Württemberg. On 3 afternoons, the current project results were presented and discussed with the project partners. As part of these meetings, the wishes and suggestions of those present regarding the project and its course were asked, and the further procedure was discussed and agreed together. The high level of interest and lively participation in these events show that the project investigated a topic that is very popular in practice and the results of which are highly relevant to the public. In addition, the results of the project were presented to representatives of the wood and paper industry and discussed with them at several meetings. Here, too, the topic met with widespread interest and sparked intense discussions. In addition, the results will be presented to the public on September 20 and 21, 2007, as part of a two-day conference on the subject of "energy wood" in Freiburg.
At the Institute for Forest Use and Forest Work Science - as well as at the Forestry Experimental and Research Institute Baden-Württemberg - research focused on bioenergy, so that with the help of the findings from the project, the numerous inquiries from home and abroad Abroad with regard to the provision of wood chips from the forest and the landscape, we can provide a well-founded and expert answer and thus valuable support for the expansion of renewable energies can be given. For example, the wood energy operating company Zell received technical advice on setting up the wood chip supply for the local heating network in Zell im Wiesental, as did the city of Laichingen on the logistics optimization for the municipal heating plant. In addition, the findings of the present project flowed into other projects of the DBU at the Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, but also z. B. in projects of the Ökoinstitut Freiburg or the Fischer-Dürr-Stiftung. Another project for which the results of this project are highly relevant is, for example, the EU-Life project "Rohrhardsberg, Obere Elz and Wilde Gutach" (project owner: Freiburg Regional Council), which is divided into sub-projects (processing at the Institute for Forest Use and Forest ergonomics) is also concerned with the energetic use of biomass and is based in part on the results of this project.
The results and findings of the project were also presented to a broad public outside of the project meetings in the context of numerous lectures and through a lively publication activity in relevant specialist journals.
In addition, as part of the project, several diploma, master’s and term papers were worked on by students from the Faculty of Forest and Environmental Sciences at the Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg and scientifically supervised and organizationally supported by employees of the Institute for Forest Use and Forest Work Science. They act as multipliers at their current jobs and continue to drive the expansion of bioenergy.
Numerous students were also able to vividly and vividly convey the topic of bioenergy and the entire supply chain from the forest to the heating plant in numerous lectures and during several excursions to project partners (Holzwerke Dold, Markgräfler Häckselzug).


Conclusion

With the implementation of the project, the initial situation and the framework conditions for the provision of wood chips from the forest and landscape for energy recovery in the region could be further improved. Extensive press, lecture and publication work made it possible to sensitize and mobilize the public in the region and beyond for the topic.

By employing companies from the region as well as from neighboring countries as part of the project, new players could be integrated into the region's activities and existing business relationships could be further networked. Institutions that have not been involved up to now (e.g. Freiburg Government Board, Lörrach Pasture Directorate, Deutsche Bahn AG, etc.) were able to demonstrate possibilities for active participation in the energetic utilization of biomass, which will also exist in the future and will be further expanded. During the 30-month duration of the project, a total of approx. 64 hectares of forest area were processed in the project area, approx. 1,500 cubic meters of round wood were harvested and approx. 6,000 cubic meters of wood chips were used for energy recovery, which could be used as a substitute for approx.

From an economic point of view, it can be said that the project has succeeded in identifying new ways of making wood chips available in an economically viable manner and in putting them into practice. This not only includes innovative machine combinations such as B. the harvesters with Fäller-Sammer units, but especially new areas of application for conventional machines, such as the transport of chipping material by long timber trucks. After it has been proven for the latter in particular that an economically sensible use is possible, this system will certainly be used more in the future. Considerable potential for optimization was also shown in the area of ​​chopping. On the one hand, it was made clear how the working method of the hacker himself can be designed more efficiently in the future, but what weight is attached to optimally functioning logistics, which must by no means be neglected.

In addition, it could be shown that the provision of wood chips in connection with nature conservation / state conservation interventions can be worthwhile. In particular, the maintenance of pasture fields should be mentioned, but also, for example, the use of wood chips from maintenance measures in middle and low oak forests, or of hedges and accompanying trees in the open landscape, which will be organized and carried out differently in the future