Where did Josef Stalin grow up?
Josef W. Stalin 1878 / 79-1953
December 18, 1878 (or according to other information December 21, 1879): Stalin is born as Josef Wissarionowitsch Dschugaschwili in Gori (Georgia). As the child of a shoemaker and a laundress, he didn't learn Russian until he was eleven.
Entry into the Orthodox seminary of Tbilisi, where he deals with Marxist writings for the first time.
Stalin becomes a member of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party (RSDLP).
He is expelled from the seminary because of his involvement in revolutionary activities.
After the split in the RSDLP, Stalin sided with the Bolsheviks under Vladimir I. Lenin, and shortly afterwards he was exiled to Siberia. Here he marries Ekaterina Swanidze. From this marriage comes his first son, who was shot while trying to escape while a prisoner of war in Germany during the Second World War, without Stalin having tried to get his release.
After fleeing Siberia, Stalin begins to organize robberies for the revolutionaries.
June 25: The spectacular raid on the Reichsbank branch in Tbilisi, planned and organized by Stalin, brings 250,000 rubles in booty.
Death of his wife.
Stalin is arrested and sentenced several times, but is always released after a short time. He is said to have had contacts with the state secret police.
Lenin, who values him as a brilliant organizer, appoints him to the Central Committee of the Bolsheviks. From now on he uses the name Stalin ("the steel one").
Exile in Siberia.
After the end of the tsarist rule, Stalin follows
St. Petersburg and works there in the party organization of the Bolsheviks. He participates in the preparations for the takeover and becomes a member of the editorial board of "Pravda".
In the Bolshevik government of Lenin he first became People's Commissar for Nationality Issues and, with the help of the Red Army, forcibly reintegrated the Caucasus peoples who had fallen from Russia into Soviet power.
During the civil war, he worked as a political commissioner on several fronts. In the war against Poland there was a break with the army leadership under Leon D. Trotsky.
With the reorganization of the party, Stalin becomes a member of both the political and the organizational bureau and thus achieves a special power base within the party, since he is the only one belonging to both governing bodies.
Marriage to Nadezhda Alliluyeva.
As People's Commissar for Workers 'and Peasants' Inspection, he supervises the implementation of government decisions and also takes part in decisions on personnel issues.
The newly created office of General Secretary is expanded by Stalin to become a key position in his internal party power base and used in the fight against rivals.
Despite Lenin's warnings about Stalin's ambitions, he will retain his office after his death. With the help of his position of power and unscrupulous alliances, Stalin can eliminate his competitors one after the other and suppress any opposition within the party.
Under the maxim of "socialism in one country", Stalin uses his unlimited power to enforce forced collectivization in agriculture and rigorous industrialization with the help of five-year plans.
With the "Great Purge", Stalin destroys all potential and supposed opponents of his rule. The old Bolshevik leadership from Lenin's time is also condemned and executed in show trials.
As a result of a foreign policy striving for security, the USSR concludes the non-aggression pact with the German Reich.
Stalin becomes chairman of the Council of People's Commissars (later the Council of Ministers) and takes over the warfare after the German invasion of the Soviet Union. He proclaims the "patriotic war" against Adolf Hitler.
At the conferences in Yalta and Potsdam and with the promotion of communist party regimes in the Eastern European states, Stalin's expansionist striving for power successfully asserted itself, which was one of the foundations of the post-war order until 1990.
With his undisputed position of power, he is continuing the rigorous domestic policy and planning further purges.
With the blockade of West Berlin, Stalin tries to gain control of the entire city.
The Korean War shows the contrast between the two world powers, the USSR and the USA, as well as Stalin's will to expand his sphere of influence.
During the negotiations on the Germany and the EDC treaty, Stalin tries to prevent the West from integrating the Federal Republic of Germany. In a note to the Western powers, he offers negotiations on the reunification of Germany, the conclusion of a peace treaty and the creation of national armed forces.
March 5: Stalin dies in his dacha near Moscow.
With the beginning of "de-Stalinization" the principle of sole rule is restricted in favor of a collective leadership of the party. In addition, crimes from the Stalin era are published and condemned.
The body of Stalin is removed from the mausoleum on Red Square and buried on the Kremlin wall.
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