Salt is considered to be sugar
From solid to liquid: The Solubility Phenomenon
The dissolving of sugar in water could be compared to the scattering of a demonstration by the police: We want to introduce ourselves to the sugar molecules as demonstrators, the water molecules as police officers. At first the two groups of protesters and police officers are separated, but when the sugar is added to the water, they meet. Now several police officers are trying to take a protester in the middle and detach him from the group of demonstrators. At the end, each demonstrator, i.e. each sugar molecule, is surrounded by several water molecules: You get a sugar solution. The individual sugar molecules are so small that you can no longer see them as sugar with the eye.
Water forms "hydrogen bonds" with certain substances
The process described takes place because the water molecules form so-called "hydrogen bonds" with the sugar molecules when they are arranged around them. The bridge formation is based on the fact that the electrons of the oxygen atoms and the nucleus (i.e. the proton) of hydrogen atoms attract each other. There are many oxygen and hydrogen atoms in sugar, and water is made up entirely of them.
When salts such as B. table salt are dissolved, something very similar happens. In salts, the ions (negatively or positively charged atoms) are arranged in a characteristic geometric structure that is stable because the ions are in a favorable energy state. You could say they "feel good" in this structure. When the salt is dissolved, the water molecules try, as with sugar, to detach individual particles from the structure and surround them. Depending on how strong the Salzgitter is and how "happy" the ions are in it, this is more or less easy. Lime, a calcium salt, has a strong lattice structure, which is why it is poorly soluble and therefore clogs the tap. Table salt is much easier to dissolve.
Can more sugar or more table salt be dissolved in water?
Most substances are known to be soluble in water. For table salt, this is 359 grams per liter (at 20 ° C). Granulated sugar (sucrose) dissolves extremely well in water at 1970 grams per liter (at 20 ° C). At 90 ° C even more than 4 kg of granulated sugar dissolve.
What role does temperature play?
On the one hand, molecules are more active and move faster at higher temperatures. That is why the process of loosening is faster. On the other hand, more of the solid can often be dissolved in the liquid at a higher temperature, so its solubility increases. However, this depends on the substances used. Why is that? When dissolving, the original structure of the solid is broken up and the molecules regroup. Their energy state changes: Either some energy is released in the form of heat, or heat is absorbed. Accordingly, the dissolution process is either exothermic (heat is generated) or endothermic (the process requires heat). If heat is supplied from the outside to the system of solid and liquid, this accelerates endothermic reactions. Exothermic reactions, on the other hand, no longer take place, as the system remains in equilibrium and does not heat any more, but rather wants to compensate for the heat supply by cooling. Table salt dissolves with a very weak endothermic reaction, which is why not much more can be dissolved at a higher temperature than at a lower temperature.
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