Ketosis causes weakness in the body


Successful Diets & Fat Loss

 

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Version 6.0 - September 2016
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Version 1.0 - September 2001

 







 

Since experts such as scientists, sports medicine specialists, people with slimming successes, successful athletes and nutritionists usually have a vital interest in presenting their own and personal experiences and research results for general validity, because this is how their products and their intellectual property sell better, it happens very different approaches in which way everyone would have to achieve the desired success. This creates this inscrutable jumble of methods and new diets are invented every month. We are all built differently, have different genes, eat differently, sometimes have food intolerances, are exposed to different psychological processes and take different risks, self-mortifying and so on. From this point of view, there can be no generally applicable holistic approaches and that ultimately gives us the opportunity and demands the agony of finding out for ourselves what works well for us individually and what does not, through thoughtful experimentation, in combination with a self-observation ability to be trained, enough self-distance and objectivity. Regarding the many scientific studies, it should be noted that there is usually a counter-study for each study.



 

With their various experiences, research results and advice, experts can show us a large number of different options and give us tips that can be analyzed for consequences and consequences and then carefully tried out if necessary. Basically, what is good for one person can be harmful for another or vice versa and results from this: When giving advice, it is advantageous if the advisor either takes into account the circumstances of the person seeking advice and builds his advice on it and / or offers different solutions, between which the person seeking advice can decide instead of simply giving his or her own point of view to the person seeking advice. On the other hand, it is up to the advice recipient and should be in his own interest how and whether he deals with the advice critically and questioningly.



 

When I see, smell, touch something or think of something to eat and immediately and always completely uncontrollably react the same way to all these appetite triggers by eating and drinking, I obviously lack discipline and self-control. It is possible that I have already lost my sense of taste due to huge amounts of food, which could be the real cause of the uncontrolled eating, because I no longer taste what I eat, so I gradually push myself more and more in order to still taste something at some point.



 

Anyone can develop strategies for themselves that will help avoid excess food intake, learn to deal with hunger attacks, and discipline themselves. For example, it can be useful to take something out of the pack and immediately put the pack far away, only to eat what has been removed, then to practice self-control and not to grab the pack again straight away.



 

The progress of a diet is usually measured on the scales, but especially when you do sport it can happen that nothing happens on the scales, but certain body curves lose or gain in size. So when starting a diet, it is advisable not only to write down your weight, but also to measure your circumference, namely your chest, abdomen, hips, upper arm, thighs and calves. It is also useful to write down which arm and which leg were measured, left or right, because sometimes the arms and legs of the same body have different sizes. In addition, it is also possible to measure the body fat percentage, for which different precise methods are available.



 

When you shop, you decide which path your own diet will take. The expensive products are usually within easy reach, the fruit and vegetable department is not infrequently hidden somewhere, products with a high calorie density are usually cheap and at the checkout you will be delighted with small but highly efficient calorie cups and drugs that promote lung cancer. Ready meals are easy to prepare, but often well equipped with fat, sugar and flavor enhancers. These flavor enhancers and appetite stimulants such as glutamate (also disguised as milk protein or sweet whey powder) can make you want more of it. Products available in different sizes are usually cheaper in terms of content or portion size in grams if one opts for the larger version of the product, but larger packs can easily lead to larger food intake. Unprocessed, raw foods tend to be more beneficial; they contain more nutritional value compared to processed, canned, and cooked foods. Incidentally, when frozen, fruits and vegetables usually contain more vitamins than preserved ones.



 

More and more packaged foods have nutritional analyzes on their packaging. Also on many websites with calorie tables the customer can find out something about the content of macronutrients and calories, often also something about the vitamin content and how much fiber the product contains. Information in nutritional tables usually relate to the edible part of a food, in the case of fruit only to the edible pulp.



 

Packaging and product advertising often confront the consumer with terms such as "light", "low in fat", "low in calories", "reduced calories", "caffeine-free", "alcohol-free" and other terms as well as weight-controlling and health-promoting product properties. However, these terms are often either not regulated by law or not precisely regulated or are subject to different rules from state to state, for example from what percentage less fat or calorie content a product is light or low-fat compared to a product with a normal fat or calorie content . Products marked with "sugar-free" or "fat-free" do not mean that there is absolutely no sugar or fat in them, but rather that the proportion of this must not exceed a very small value; the same applies to salt and sodium. Poultry meat products do not necessarily have to consist entirely of poultry meat, but can contain meat from other animal species, for example pork. Foods marked with "diet" usually only have to be composed in such a way that they are suitable for the nutrition of diabetic people, and can therefore have a high fat content. All of these products can tempt you to eat more of them and ultimately even get a larger daily calorie intake.



 

The calorie density is related to the calorie content of the food and its weight. Fruits and vegetables have a low calorie density; these foods usually contain less than 100kcal per 100g of product weight. High calorie products, i.e. foods with a high calorie density, are, for example, cakes, chocolate, potato chips and biscuits, whereby 100g of product usually contain more than 500 kcal. High-calorie products often contain a lot of fat and sugar, hardly fill you up and can therefore prove to be disadvantageous in the context of a diet. Low calorie foods tend to have a higher satiety effect.



 

There are hundreds of different diets to be followed, but there is only one basic rule: to lose body fat, the amount of calories burned must be greater than the amount of calories consumed in food, thereby creating a calorie deficit. It is everyone's personal decision, also subject to personal form, time availability, working conditions and so on, how such a calorie deficit is achieved.



 

The balancing of the food intake should help to gain an overview of the consumed amounts of calories contained in food and beverages. In the context of a diet and the calorie deficit calculated for it, you allow yourself, for example, a certain amount of calories per day, so you have to weigh and balance every crumb you eat, and divide the food in such a way that you get to bed rest with the allowed amount of calories. The advantage of this is that you do not have to forbid snacking in general, but you can learn how many calories such sweets have that you have to limit yourself in this regard and which could easily make you overweight. A well-managed balance also includes recording the macronutrients, i.e. how many carbohydrates, how much protein, fat and, if necessary, how much fiber are supplied in grams. This data can then be used for references and comparisons and reveal any over- or undersupply.



 

There are various starting points for calculating the calorie deficit for the diet. There are often guideline values ​​in circulation, with which one should not exceed a calorie deficit of 700kcal or 1000kcal per day, for example. Converted that is 35% or even 50% calorie deficit portion of the total turnover in the example of a person with a normal consumption of 2000 kcal per day. Such numerical, non-percentage values ​​carry the risk of a too high calorie deficit, which can then lead to malnutrition, insufficient supply of vitamins, minerals, trace elements and the corresponding sequelae and ultimately even lead to fat storage and destroy any diet. Orienting the calorie deficit as a percentage of total calorie consumption reduces these risks, although a value of 25% appears reasonable. This means that someone with a daily consumption of 2000kcal can maintain a deficit of 500kcal, with a daily consumption of 4000kcal a deficit of 1000kcal.



 

How many calories are roughly consumed can be roughly determined using a consumption calculator, or you can note how many calories were consumed with food and beverages every day for a month, relate the result to your personal weight development during this month and thus possibly receive an individually more suitable value. Sports activities and any fluctuations in the body's water balance must be taken into account. In general, it is difficult to determine a realistic value quickly, so long-term observations pay off. The calorie consumption is made up of the basal metabolic rate, which characterizes the consumption of calories without physical activity, and the calorie consumption due to everyday physical activities plus the consumption through sport. Together these factors result in the total turnover, the total calorie consumption in one day. Incidentally, cold and heat increase the basal metabolic rate. The human brain takes up a not inconsiderable part of the total food intake, several hundred calories per day, so the ability to think can be impaired by nutritional deficiencies, for example.



 

Our food consists essentially of the 3 macronutrients carbohydrates, protein and fat. The carbohydrates provide energy, protein is for the muscles and we are usually well or even oversupplied with dietary fat. The macronutrients contain calories, carbohydrates and protein each about 4.1kcal per gram and dietary fat about 9.3kcal per gram.



 

Glucose is the sugar in the bloodstream. It comes from eating and drinking carbohydrate foods and drinks. Glycogen is the stored form of glucose. The liver can store up to around 100g of glycogen, the muscles around four times as much. Glycogen binds water, so that when carbohydrates are stored, water is also stored and released again when glycogen is consumed. Well-trained athletes usually have greater glycogen storage capacity. Glucose can also be made from body fat and muscle protein and used as energy for physical activity. Alcohol consumption has an adverse effect on glycogen storage.



 

The hormone insulin is released from the pancreas. After ingesting a food containing carbohydrates, the blood sugar level rises, followed by the insulin level and glucose rushing into the body's cells. As a result, the blood sugar level drops again and so does the insulin level. Insulin is said to have an energy-storing effect. People react differently to insulin secretions, some feel full then, while others feel like eating and can put on body weight quickly and easily. Carbohydrates taken before or after training are more easily stored than muscle glycogen and favor muscle building and fat loss, carbohydrates taken in larger quantities at other times, on the other hand, facilitate fat storage.



 

The hormone glucagon is secreted by the pancreas, is an antagonist of insulin and is stimulated by physical activity and above all by protein that was taken in with food. The release of glucagon is also promoted in hypoglycaemia. In contrast to insulin, glucagon is used to burn stored energy, for example by converting body fat into fatty acids and glycogen into glucose. Protein synthesis requires carbohydrates, and the liver can also produce glucose from body fat and muscle protein. This process requires adequate hydration and is called gluconeogenesis.



 

Protein is the main source of energy for muscles and very important for the immune system, hormones and cell production. Amino acids are the building blocks of protein and exist in 3 groups, the essential amino acids that are ingested with food, the conditionally essential amino acids and the non-essential amino acids that are obtained by the body from food. Animal sources of protein contain all the essential amino acids, while vegetable sources of protein are of inferior quality compared to animal sources because they do not provide all of the necessary essential amino acids. The protein from eggs is said to have the highest value. The often spurned dairy products provide phosphorus, calcium and above all protein and are extremely rich in vitamins and minerals. By the way, antibiotics should be taken after dairy products so that the effect does not fizzle out. Athletes have a higher protein requirement, with an increased dietary protein intake accompanied by an increased fluid requirement. Ingesting very high amounts of protein can damage the kidneys from the overload.



 

Body fat is something you want to get rid of, it contains around 7000kcal per kg. Excess dietary fat can be easily converted into body fat with very little conversion loss. However, dietary fat is essential for some bodily functions, the solubility of various vitamins, and fertility.



 

Today's food labels often indicate the 3 types of fatty acids, or at least the saturated fatty acids (SFAs), i.e. meat, palm and coconut fats. These easily migrate to the body fat stores. While the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) can be viewed as relatively neutral, the polyunsaturated fatty acids (polyunsaturated fatty acids / PUFAs) contained in food participate in fat burning. This and, accordingly, the omega-3 fatty acids are the good fats, but unfortunately they have a flaw, because their low smoking or melting point transforms the good properties into negative ones and produces harmful substances, such polyunsaturated fatty acids are heated at high temperatures . Due to health risks, particularly the trans fats, which are mainly found in fast food, biscuits, potato chips and other fried products, are criticized, as is industrial fat hardening. So it comes down to choosing the right dietary fats wisely. Walnuts, for example, contain valuable minerals and have a very high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Despite the high proportion of fat, they promote fat burning, just like fish oils.



 

In order to maintain the essential body functions and health, they areVitamins & minerals essential. The dose also plays an important role, because overdosing can cause health impairments or even damage to health. A balanced diet is most likely to ensure basic supplies. Natural vitamins and minerals from fruit, vegetables, meat, grain and dairy products are available in addition to artificial preparations. It is controversial whether the artificial substances have the same effect as the natural ones.



 

Dietary fiber contained in food has a strong satiating effect, so such fiber-rich foods are particularly well suited to sustainably counteract feelings of hunger. Dietary fiber is sometimes referred to as non-usable carbohydrates. High-fiber foods are grain products, fruits and vegetables with variable proportions, which are given in grams in the nutritional analysis. A minimum intake of 30g of fiber per day is recommended to ensure good gastrointestinal function. However, this amount can cause digestive problems in some people. High fiber meals can delay the onset of pain relievers.



 

The use of sweeteners is controversial; they can affect appetite, trigger hunger and have a negative effect on the sense of taste or are even suspected of being able to cause damage to health if they are consumed in high doses over a long period of time, keyword light drinks. Sweeteners require approval as food, so it may happen that some substances are not approved in some countries.



 

All of the high sugar and simple carbohydrate drinks and foods make it easier to store energy as body fat. The hormone and blood sugar levels rise and fall, especially through the consumption of the typical soft drinks like on a roller coaster, you quickly get a feeling of hunger again, want more immediate blood sugar surges and take them without any real need. Food rich in sugar worsens glucose metabolism and can cause a number of undesirable symptoms such as insomnia, tiredness and fatigue. Simple carbohydrates hinder the absorption of vitamins (e.g. C) as well as some minerals and trace elements (e.g. calcium / iron / chromium), or increase the need for such substances. Caution is also advised with fructose, as its intake can hinder feelings of satiety and thus lead to obesity.



 

Dietary fat serves as a flavor carrier and as a flavor enhancer. Excessive consumption of dietary fat can change the perception of how a food tastes. There is then a general tendency towards the consumption of more and more high-fat foods, while at the same time less and less taste is found in low-fat foods. The increasing dietary fat intake eventually settles as body fat. Spices and herbs are a good alternative to larger amounts of the flavor-enhancing dietary fats.



 

Carbohydrate-reduced diets, so-called low-carb diets, are based on low carbohydrate but high protein and fat intake. There is no general definition of what is meant by LowCarb and how many carbohydrates are allowed. This type of diet reduces insulin output and increases glucagon output by avoiding the main source of energy, carbohydrates. It doesn't work for everyone; some people experience deterioration in thinking skills, nervousness, feelings of weakness, and other symptoms. On the flip side, some people cut their carbohydrate intake to a very low level, under about 100 g per day, in order to achieve a questionable metabolic state called ketosis. When using a low-carb diet, you should ensure that you have a sufficient supply of vitamins and minerals, otherwise it can become counterproductive or even damage your health. Part of the success of slimming with these diets can be attributed to the fact that the choice of permitted foods is small and it is easier to reduce food intake.



 

Reduced-fat diets, so-called low-fat diets, are based on a reduced or very low intake of fat. Normally, reducing dietary fats also means reducing carbohydrate intake. Some people do not have success with this form of diet, on the other hand, LowFat should work very well for people who are overweight. Some already record significant weight loss with a dietary fat reduction to just 80g per day. LowFat can be combined very well with excessive exercise such as cardio to speed up the weight loss process. When using this form of diet, one should monitor the carbohydrate intake, because if it is too high, so is the insulin level and this in turn reduces the weight loss effect.



 

The Glycemic Index tells us about the effects of various foods containing simple or complex carbohydrates on blood glucose levels. Highly glycemic foods containing simple carbohydrates (monosaccharides), such as sugary drinks, cause blood sugar levels to rise very quickly, low glycemic foods containing complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides), such as rice, are processed more slowly and the rise in blood sugar levels is less dramatic. Foods with a Glycemic Index of 50 or less are considered to be low-glycemic foods; anything from around 70 is classified as high-glycemic. The Glycemic Charge takes into account the Glycemic Index and the carbohydrate content of a particular food. Therefore: GL = GI ÷ 100 × carbohydrate content in g. The Glycemic Load thus represents the total glycemic effect of a food.



 

Eating vegetables and many types of fruit with their low calorie density is healthy, has a filling and constipating effect, so it can help reduce the total daily amount of calories consumed. During digestion, the ratio of energy consumption to energy content of the food eaten is also very favorable; it may be that the digestive process consumes just as many calories as calories were supplied with the food to be digested. Depending on the type of macronutrient composition, an average of around 10% of the daily calorie consumption is accounted for by digestion (TEF = Thermic Effect of Feeding / DIT = Dietary Induced Thermogenesis), dietary fats have hardly any TEF, while protein (meat, dairy products) and fiber (fruit, vegetables, grain products) ) crank the TEF the most. Foods that contain a lot of protein can have a strong satiating effect, promote muscle growth and fat loss, so it makes sense to increase protein intake as part of a diet.



 

The body can only process a certain amount of carbohydrates in a certain period of time; any oversupply can then be stored as body fat. Excess dietary fat is much more easily converted into body fat. It is therefore advisable to eat several smaller meals rather than the usual 3 large meals throughout the day. This also meets the need for food if you feel hungry in between. Breakfast quickly gets your metabolism going and thus also calorie burning. Late in the evening it can be beneficial to stop eating high-fat foods to avoid fat storage, but a small amount of carbohydrate & protein foods will help keep insulin levels stable overnight.



 

Some foods and drinks have a thermogenic effect. This means that they accelerate the burning of energy and fat. Thermogens include foods containing capsaicin such as chilli and pepper, vinegar, ginger and protein containing foods and dairy products, as well as magnesium, for example. Drinks containing caffeine are also included, with coffee containing about 4 times as much caffeine as caffeinated soft drinks. But be careful, take thermogenic food at a sufficient distance before going to bed, because the higher metabolism that has come into motion can possibly rob you of sleep.



 

On a refeed day, also known as a feed day or recharge day, you eat more calories than on normal diet days in order to get your metabolism going again. However, some people only increase their carbohydrate intake on such days and avoid consuming more dietary fat. The refeed principle is controversial with regard to its effect and there are also different approaches to how such a refeed day should be designed. The reason why refeed days are still used by many people is probably due to something that is less controversial, namely to send the metabolism on a roller coaster ride, to provide it with a lot of food today, with less tomorrow, with a little more the day after, the next day with significantly less and so on. It prevents the metabolism from getting used to something and adapting to a routine. You do a refeed like this maybe once a week and it should also help to prevent a lack of nutrients, vitamins, minerals and trace elements, which can easily arise during a diet with a high calorie deficit. The body weight on the following day can go up significantly, but largely due to water retention and the replenishment of glycogen stores. It should have dropped again after a day or two and from then on, another weight loss, another weight loss would normally be due.



 

To save calories and dietary fat, there are often alternatives to commonly used foods, for example cream can be partially replaced by milk. In contrast to whole milk, skimmed milk contains 90% less fat and 50% fewer calories, without any loss of protein. When roasting minced meat on a medium setting, there is no need to add oil, because the mince itself releases fat after a short time. Cold-pressed vegetable oil should not be heated, it has a lower smoke point, the oil starts smoking early and is destroyed. If fruits and vegetables are washed excessively, vitamins are also washed out. Lettuce may contain a lot of vitamins when harvested, but a large part of them can be lost through transportation, storage and washing. Canned water is often drained off and not used, and it contains water-soluble vitamins from the preserved food. Long preparation processes can lead to the breakdown of nutrients, so it is best to cook food as briefly and in as little water as possible. Vitamin C breaks down through light, contact with air and heating in temperature ranges of 65-85 ° C, but remains relatively stable at temperatures above or below. Other vitamins have their respective sensitivities, so that careful storage or, better still, quick consumption after the harvest is recommended. The body needs salt or sodium, but the average salt consumption usually significantly exceeds the recommended amounts, whereby too much salt can flood the body with liquid and affect the sense of taste.



 

The yo-yo effect can arise through relapse into old habits. There is a change in calorie deficit-calorie surplus and body weight increases again. It is irrelevant whether the switch from a weight-reducing calorie deficit to a weight-increasing calorie excess comes about through more food intake and / or less exercise, but a reduction in exercise activities may have a more difficult effect, especially if it is accompanied by muscle loss.



 

Some people report the phenomenon of cyclical weight loss while on a long-term diet. There is no significant weight loss for 2 or 3 weeks, although a calorie deficit is maintained during this time, but within a few days there is a weight loss of several kilos at once, followed by another phase of several weeks without weight loss, and so on further. The body's salt-regulated water balance, sporting activities and their changes in the muscles or other things can be the cause here.



 

Sweating removes fluids and minerals such as salt. These losses have to be compensated for by adding water or, for example, an isotonic drink. A body that sweats during exercise signals that the cooling is working well, because without sweating the body would continue to heat up. The loss of fluid caused by sweating reduces physical performance, greater fluid losses carry the risk of dehydration, usually recognizable by very strongly colored urine. Thirst is a perception that often only occurs after a delay after water has already been lost. In addition to training, you should therefore ensure that you drink enough fluids, it also helps you lose weight. Drinking a lot of water means better fat breakdown, better transport of protein / amino acids to the muscles and a better supply of the muscles with glycogen. Feelings of hunger can decrease if you have already drunk a lot of water before a meal. When thirst is felt, the body is already dehydrated. 2 liters of fluid intake per day are generally recommended as a guideline. Too much fluid, on the other hand, can have a negative effect on the mineral balance.



 

Symptoms of hypoglycaemia, i.e. low blood sugar, are, for example, tremors, sweating, palpitations, hunger, pale skin and unsteady gait. Adrenaline and glucagon output are involved in hypoglycaemia, the former can reduce pain sensitivity. Hypoglycemia in healthy people can also manifest itself without symptoms, be a result of consuming foods with a high concentration of carbohydrates or, for example, afflict athletes with longer endurance activities.





 

A healthy diet and endurance training complement each other, because if you follow a low-calorie diet, the training combats feelings of hunger. This cardiovascular training, also known as cardio, can be started as a beginner with long walks or the fashionable NordicWalking, soon increasing the speed and finally increasing it to jogging speed. The more weight you lose and the better your personal level of training develops, the longer and faster you can run. Depression, insomnia, anxiety disorders and body weakness can be combated with training; it also often reduces sensitivity to pain, supports the functions of the heart, muscles, lungs and brain and increases self-confidence. However, in order to benefit from cardiovascular training at all, training should take place several times a week for at least 30 minutes each time; the burning of fat and glycogen starts immediately after the start of training. Jogging and running activities in the morning on an empty stomach can mean a possibly lower performance, while on the other hand the energy has to be taken from the stores. Conversely, some nutritional energy before exercise can increase performance but reduce the consumption of stored energy. Regular exercise and a reduced-calorie diet at the same time increase testosterone levels and thus promote muscle growth while body fat slowly melts away. Before starting an exercise program, however, it is advisable, especially if you are very overweight, to consult a doctor and check whether any health impairments or risks are to be expected.



 

The training intensity is given as a percentage of the maximum heart rate and is an important factor in cardio training. The formula MHF = 220 - age is often used for the MHF, but it does not take individual circumstances into account, because some people tend to have a lower pulse, others perhaps a higher one, and the MHF also shifts due to a change in the level of training and fitness . With training in the range of 80-90% MHF, which is not recommended or can only be sustained for a short time, one moves in the anaerobic training zone with simultaneously high lactate, sometimes also called lactic acid production. The 70-80% MHF area is the aerobic-anaerobic threshold training zone, the balance between lactate production and lactate breakdown, where very demanding endurance training takes place. The aerobic training zone is in the 50-70% MHF range; the body gets its energy by burning fat and / or glycogen together with oxygen. As the running speed increases, the amount of energy burned per unit of distance run increases, so a runner burns more energy per kilometer than a walker. Changes in pace during cardio training can stimulate the burning of energy; such IV training (interval training) specifically trains the ability to break down high lactate levels more quickly, which are produced by the oxidation of glycogen.More intensive training is less suitable for rapid fat loss.



 

With increasing training intensity, the proportion of fatty acids burned decreases, while the proportion of burned glycogen increases. From this fact, terms such as fat burning training or fat burning pulse are often derived and it is recommended to maintain lower training intensities in the range of 50-60% MHF. This training intensity is quite demanding for beginners and overweight runners, also suitable for athletes who want to conserve their glycogen reserves, while a higher training intensity is likely to be more effective for well-trained endurance runners. Basically there is nothing wrong with the terms fat burning training and fat burning pulse, but they are easily misleading or even misleading with regard to all the different training goals and losing weight. When it comes to losing weight, it doesn't matter so much whether fatty acids or glycogen are burned, in both cases it is calories and the calorie deficit ultimately melts body fat. Critics of the term fat-burning pulse therefore advise choosing higher training intensities. However, constant high training intensities provoke experiences of exhaustion and sore muscles, the risk of injury can increase and the immune system can be impaired, so that ultimately fewer calories are burned over a certain period of time than would be the case with more moderate training intensities. If you are very overweight or not fit, high training intensities are just as disadvantageous and therefore the terms fat burning training and fat burning pulse can have a motivating effect in such cases, because they suggest that something can also be achieved with low training intensity. A major problem, however, is the determination of the MHF, because the results of the available formulas can deviate quite significantly from the actual value. Ultimately, it makes the most sense to find out individually by trying out and observing your own body what works best for you in order to achieve the maximum amount of calories burned; everyone has their very own efficient training pulse, which also changes accordingly with changing fitness changed.