How did the Indonesian National Revolution end

The Merdeka Palace (Indonesian: Istana Merdeka; also known in Indonesian as Istana Gambir and during the Dutch colonial era as Paleis te Koningsplein) is one of six presidential palaces in Indonesia. It is located on the north side of Merdeka Square in central Jakarta, Indonesia and serves as the official residence of the President of the Republic of Indonesia.

The palace was a residence for the governor general of the Dutch East Indies during colonial times. In 1949 the palace was renamed Merdeka Palace, “(ke) merdeka (an)” means “freedom” or “independence”.

Merdeka Palace is part of Jakarta's 6.8 hectare Presidential Palace complex, which also includes Negara Palace, Wisma Negara (State Guest House), Negara Secretariat (State Secretariat) and the Bina Graha Building. It is the center of the Indonesian law enforcement agency.

history
Negara palace
The history of the Merdeka Palace begins with the manor house of the merchant Jacob Andries van Braam, which was built in Rijswijk (now called Harmonie) in 1804. The property was bought by the Dutch Indian government to hold its administrative and council meetings.

Merdeka Palace
During the middle of the 19th century, the Rijswijk Palace was no longer sufficient for administrative purposes, so Governor General Pieter Mijer ordered the construction of a new palace in 1869. Construction later began on March 23, 1873 under the direction of Governor General James Loudon. The neopalladic palace was designed by Jacobus Bartholomeus Drossaers and built by the public works department and contractor Drossaers & Company at a cost of 360,000 euros. The new building was erected in the southern part of the Rijswijk Palace grounds directly opposite the Koningsplein (now Merdeka Square). The palace was completed in 1879 during the administration of Governor General Johan Wilhelm van Lansberge. This new palace was also known as the Istana Gambir (Gambir Palace).

During the Japanese occupation of Indonesia (1942-1945) the Saiko Shikikan (army commander) of the Japanese garrison resided on the grounds of the Rijswijk Palace.

The Indonesian National Revolution (1945-1949) ended with the recognition of the Republic of Indonesia by the Netherlands. The Indonesian declaration of independence from the Dutch in 1949 was announced in the Gambir Palace. During the ceremony, the Dutch flag was replaced with the flag of Indonesia. Many spectators were delighted when the flag was hoisted and shouted “Merdeka! (Freedom!)". From that moment on, Gambir Palace became known as Merdeka Palace. On December 27, 1949, the day after the ceremony, President Sukarno and his family arrived from Yogyakarta. For the first time, the President of the Republic of Indonesia settled in the Merdeka Palace. The first annual Independence Day ceremony was held at Merdeka Palace in 1950.

Since its inception, fifteen governors-general, three Japanese commanders and an Indonesian president have settled in the Merdeka Palace.

Development of the Merdeka Palace
The building has remained unchanged since the building was completed in 1879. After Indonesia's independence, the Merdeka Palace area was expanded not only to Istana Negara (State Palace), but also to Wisma Negara, Secretariat Negara (State Secretariat) and Bina Graha. In the Weltevreden area, several colonial buildings and apartment buildings were demolished to make way for the current State Palace building.

A small octagonal pavilion in the courtyard of the palace was used as a private school for children of Sukarno and the palace staff. This pavilion was previously used by Dutch colonial officials as a muziekkoepel (bandstand), where musical performances were played during formal balls.

When Suharto became President of Indonesia, he made changes to the palace's former residence function. Sukarno's bedroom was converted into Ruang Bendera Pustaka (Regalia Room) and Sukarno's wife Fatmawati's room became the President's bedroom. An old wooden building in the palace complex known as “Sanggar” was demolished to make way for the Puri Bhakti Renatama building and was used as a museum to store valuable artifacts, works of art and gifts from foreign emissaries. Later he also built the Bina Graha building on the palace grounds, which he used as his office.

When Megawati took office, she had the Puri Bhakti Renatama building converted into the President's office while its contents were moved to the Bina Graha building. She also restored the palace's furniture and decorations as it was under Sukarno. Suharto's wood-carved furniture Jepara has been removed, with the exception of the Ruang Jepara (Jepara room, in memory of the Suharto regime), and replaced by the old colonial renovation.

The Merdeka Palace now
The Merdeka Palace serves as the official venue for state events such as the Independence Day ceremony, welcoming (foreign) dignitaries, cabinet meetings, state banquets and receiving credentials from foreign ambassadors. In addition, it still contains the President's private quarters and offices.

The administrative role that the palace once had has been shifted to the State Palace and Secretary of State, while the Merdeka Palace remains a symbol of authority.

Layout of the palace
A 17 m high flagpole and a fountain are located on the front lawn of the Merdeka Palace. The annual flag raising ceremony takes place during Indonesia's Independence Day on August 17th. During the independence ceremony, the porch is often used as a ceremonial stage for the president and dignitaries.

Notable rooms in the palace include:

Ruang Kredensial (access hall) provides access to the palace and is the place where most diplomatic activities are carried out, such as: B. Reception of state guests and ambassadors. The lobby is decorated with colonial furniture, paintings and ceramics.
Ruang Jepara (Jepara Room) was a former Sukarno study, named after the central Javanese town of Jepara, the source of the carved wooden furniture and decorations in the room.
Ruang Raden Saleh (Raden Saleh Room) is located in front of [where?] Of Ruang Jepara. The room was previously used as the first lady's office and living room. Megawati used the room to store 5 paintings by the Indonesian painter Raden Saleh.
Ruang Resepsi (reception room) is the largest room in the palace. It is usually used for state banquets, state gala dinners, national meetings, and cultural performances. There are two paintings by Basuki Abdullah. On the east wall hangs “Pergiwa Pergiwati”, a picture theme from Mahabharata, and on the west wall hangs the Javanese painting “Jaka Tarub”.
Ruang Bendera Pusaka (Heirloom Flag Room) or Regalia Room. The room is used to store the “Bendera Pusaka”, the first Indonesian flag that was raised during Indonesia's declaration of independence on August 17, 1945.
The post-Sukarno presidents no longer use the palace as a residence, although it is still the official presidential residence. The palace's offices are still used by the current Indonesian president. During the Suharto government, Suharto preferred to live in his own home in Jalan Cendana, Menteng, while the palace and Bina Graha only served as his office. The palace became the official presidential residence again during the tenure of Abdurrahman Wahid and Megawati. Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono sometimes lives at Merdeka Palace, but like Suharto, he often prefers to live in his own house in Puri Cikeas, Cibubur, south of Jakarta.

Changing of the guard
The changing of the guard at the Paspampres has been open to the public since July 17, 2016. It takes place every last Sunday of the month at 8 a.m. in front of the castle courtyard.

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