What does the particle represent

Particle model

We deal with the particle model in this article. It explains what is meant by the particle model and why it is used. This article belongs to the field of thermodynamics.

In thermodynamics (and also in chemistry) so-called models are used on a regular basis. This is an "idea" of how certain structures and properties can be made clear. Models should help people to better imagine many things. In order to be able to describe the properties of solids, liquids and gases a little better, we show you the so-called "particle model" here.


The particle model

The particle model assumes that a substance is made up of small Bullets consists. In reality, these smallest particles (atoms, molecules or ions) are of a different shape, but to explain the three states of aggregation (liquid, solid, gaseous) it is sufficient to regard the particles as small, round spheres.

The Move the particle of the three states is a measure of that temperature of the substance. The type of movement is completely different in the three aggregate states. In the gas, the particles move in a straight line (like billiard balls, for example) until they collide with another or with the wall of the vessel. In the liquid, the particles have to squeeze through gaps between their neighbors. In the solid, the particles move only a little around their position of rest.

To the graphic: In the solid state, the particles of the substances have a fixed place around which they "swing". In the liquid state, this is no longer the case, but the particles can be shifted against each other. In the gaseous state, the particles can move freely.

Significance of the particle model:

The particle model is a very simple model with which one can make some rough statements about some important observations. However, other (usually more complex) descriptions are required for exact predictions. Nevertheless, the following observations can be explained with the particle model:

  • Physical states: Depending on the distance between the particles and their speed in a substance, a substance is in a solid, liquid or gaseous state
  • Temperature: The temperature is a measure of the intensity of the movement, i.e. the kinetic energy of the particles in a system.
  • Absolute zero: As the particles cool down, the movement of the particles becomes slower and slower. At −273.15 ° C the particles are no longer in motion, the absolute zero point has been reached.


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