What is your strange food allergy

Dear class 8d !!! The following tasks are intended for the next two weeks (week; until Pentecost!

Transcript

1 love class 8d !!! The following tasks are for the next two weeks (week; until Pentecost! Check out the films at the following link: Then work on the following worksheets. I will then send you the solutions after Pentecost! Create something, then you will something! !!!! Greetings from your biopauker Lugibihl

2 46 / Allergies Worksheet 1 Page 1/3 Allergy is not the same as allergy Bring order to the diversity of allergies The term allergy is a word created from the Greek words allos (German: foreign, different) and ergon (German: work, activity). In relation to the human immune system, it means something like the function of the immune system that deviates from the normal. Even if the essential processes of allergic reactions are always similar, doctors and scientists classify the large number of different allergies according to different aspects, such as: according to the source of the allergen or the type of contact with the allergen. 1. Bring order to the variety of allergies and fill out the table. Note: On page 2 of the worksheet you will find pictures and terms that will help you fill out the table. Name of the allergy Technical term of the allergens Examples of allergens Type of contact

3 46 / Allergies worksheet 1 page 2/3 Food allergy Food allergens Allergic asthma House dust allergy Breathing: mucous membranes of the nose or eyes Injection allergens Aeroallergens Contact allergens Contact allergy Ingestion through food: mouth and gastrointestinal tract Pollen allergy Animal hair allergy Injection allergy Contact with skin Sting by insects (e.g. Bees and wasps) Images: FWU Institute for Film and Image

4 46 / Allergies Worksheet 1 Page 3/3 2. Lena has been allergic to pollen since she was a child, especially birch pollen and house dust mites. She never had a desensitization at the doctor's. Since she started studying, there have been very strange symptoms: She gets a tingling sensation and small pustules on her tongue when it is apples. She often gets red, itchy patches of skin, especially on the neck and inside of the elbows. When running in the park, she is getting more and more difficult to breathe. Write a short letter to Lena by (a) explaining her symptoms using the technical terms shown in the film and (b) giving her advice on how to relieve her symptoms.

5 46 / Allergies Worksheet 3 Page 1/3 Are allergies a common disease? Frequency of allergies in Germany and my class Allergies are often referred to as a new widespread disease. But how many people in Germany really suffer from allergies? 1. Read through the info text Allergies, the new common disease and then create a bar chart for the five most common forms of allergy in Germany. Use the information from the info text and the prepared diagram on page 2. Tip: Please don't forget to label the lower axis. Info text: Allergies the new widespread disease Around one in three people in Germany will suffer from an allergy at least once in their lifetime. Often those affected are allergic to several things at the same time, the proportion of allergy sufferers in Germany has increased again compared to previous years: a particularly large number of people are plagued by hay fever (25%). The proportion of contact allergy sufferers is 8.5%, closely followed by people with neurodermatitis (6.5%) and food allergies (6%). 5% of Germans suffer from a house dust allergy, which is caused by the faeces of house dust mites. Insect bites cause problems for 2.5% of allergy sufferers. Source: 2. Fill out the questionnaire on page 3 and give it to your teacher. Note: As an exception, don't write your name on the worksheet. Your questionnaire will be treated absolutely anonymously. 3. Together with your class you evaluate the anonymous questionnaires. Also enter the values ​​for the frequency of allergies in your class in the bar chart. Compare the two data sets with each other. 4. According to which criteria could the data from the questionnaire be evaluated? Choose a criterion and present the data in a bar chart on an extra sheet of paper.

6 46 / Allergies Worksheet 3 Page 2/3 Frequencies of allergies in Germany and my class Hay fever Contact allergy Neurodermatitis Food allergy House dust mite allergy Insect venom allergy Space for your legend:

7 46 / Allergies Worksheet 3 Page 3/3 Questionnaire: What kind of allergies do you have? Question 1: Gender: male female Question 2: Do you have an allergy? yes no Question 3: If you answered yes to Question 2: Which of the following allergies do you have? (You can also put several crosses.) Hay fever Contact allergy Neurodermatitis Food allergy House dust mite allergy Insect venom allergies Other allergies: Question 4: If you answered no to question 2: Do you suspect that you have your allergy? yes no If you ticked yes to question 4: Have you already been examined by a doctor regarding your suspicions? yes no space for your comments on allergies:

8 [object HTMLLinkElement] [object HTMLLinkElement] [object HTMLLinkElement] undefined allergies allergies group date from date to allergies class 8d

9 46 / Allergies Filmtext Page 1/6 Allergies Immune system out of control Filmtext What is an allergy? (Film sequence 1:50 min) This is Andreas. He likes to be out in nature. Today is a particularly beautiful day, perfect for cycling. But for a few weeks now, Andreas has had an annoying runny nose and his eyes keep watering. It's frustrating! Maybe he should just see a doctor. Andreas describes his symptoms and the doctor suspects that it is an allergy, namely a pollen allergy also known colloquially as hay fever. Hay fever is officially called an allergic runny nose. Its trigger is not hay, as the name suggests, but in this case plant pollen. They look like this under the microscope. Food or medication can also trigger allergies. Some people also have an allergic reaction to animal hair or to insecticides, for example to the sting of a bee or wasp. In Germany, one in three people is now affected by an allergy. Regardless of the trigger, the processes in the body are always very similar. In simple terms, one could say that the immune system overreacts. Actually harmless substances are fought with concentrated force. And that has unpleasant consequences for us. Allergens (film sequence 3:20 min) Allergies are triggered by certain substances called allergens. The immune system mistakenly considers these substances to be dangerous intruders and fights them. In most cases these are compounds that occur naturally and not, as one might suspect, manufactured chemicals. Although there are of course allergies to such substances. For example, pollen is a natural allergen. They bother a lot of people. But the pollen is not the problem. The actual allergens are much smaller and are part of the pollen grains. For example protein molecules or carbohydrates or just fragments of them. It is the structure of such molecules that is recognized by the immune system and triggers a response. Who would have thought that these peanuts could also cause severe allergies? Fortunately, Andreas is not affected by this, otherwise we would have to call the emergency doctor now. Here, too, one is not allergic to the peanuts per se, but to the tiny molecules found in the peanuts. You don't even have to eat a peanut for an allergic reaction to occur. It is often enough if a food contains the smallest peanut components. To be on the safe side, many manufacturers write warnings on their products, for example they may contain traces of nuts even if there are actually no nuts in the product.

10 46 / Allergies Filmtext Page 2/6 Allergens can be grouped together. Airborne allergens are called aeroallergens. These include pollen, animal hair, fungal spores or house dust. They enter our body through breathing or through the mucous membranes of the nose and eyes. Substances that we ingest through our food can also be problematic. One speaks of food allergens. It is particularly common in legumes such as peanuts or soybeans, in cereals, milk, eggs, in fish and in fruit. Sometimes an allergic reaction occurs when the skin comes into contact with a substance. These contact allergens can be found, for example, in cosmetics or in certain metals that can be found in jewelry or buttons. Unpleasant itching and reddening of the navel are often an indication of a nickel contact allergy. If allergens get into the body through an injection, they are injection allergens. This is the case with insect poisons from insect bites. Or also with drugs and X-ray contrast media that are administered with a syringe. Phases of an allergy (film sequence 2:50 min) An allergy arises in two phases. In the first phase, the immune system comes into contact with allergens for the first time, for example by inhaling pollen. Even traces of allergens, e.g. B. certain protein molecules from birch pollen are sufficient to start a defense reaction of the immune system. These protein molecules eventually end up in the bloodstream. The body releases certain antibodies against the foreign substance in the blood. They are made by immune cells. The shape of the antibodies resembles a Y. There are binding sites for the allergens on the two short arms. The long arm is called the foot part. The antibodies should actually only be used if the substance that has penetrated is a pathogen. The first time they come into contact with the allergen, the antibodies attach themselves to the surface of certain cells of the immune system, the mast cells. On the surface of the mast cell there are receptors to which the base of the antibodies binds. The mast cells contain vesicles that are filled with the hormone histamine. Mast cells are found in large numbers in the walls of the airways. Once the antibodies have occupied the mast cells, one is sensitized. With the sensitization, the immune system prepares for new attacks of the same allergen. In this first phase there are usually no symptoms. This process can take a few days to weeks. Only further contact with the allergen leads to an allergic reaction. That is the second phase. The allergen binds to the antibodies on the mast cells of the immune system according to the lock and key principle. The mast cells then release the histamine. As a result of this inflammation-promoting substance, the mucous membranes swell and more mucus is formed. Now the allergic symptoms also show up: runny nose, sneezing, itchy, watery eyes or shortness of breath. Health, Andreas!

11 46 / Allergies Filmtext Seite 3/6 Symptoms of an allergy (film sequence 3:10 min) A cold without having a cold. We all know the symptoms of an allergy from our own experience or from others. Sometimes you have to cough heavily or have shortness of breath. A severe allergy can even develop a form of the respiratory disease asthma: allergic asthma. These allergic symptoms do not only occur with hay fever, but also, for example, with house dust allergies or animal hair allergies. With other allergies, one often shows other symptoms as well. With a contact allergy, the skin reacts to a substance with which it has often come into direct contact. Eczema forms with reddened, swollen, oozing or itchy skin, and blisters or flakes are also possible. Here the tissue in contact with the allergen is damaged by the excessive reaction of the immune system. Since this process takes place relatively slowly, one speaks of a delayed reaction. Food allergies often lead to itching, swollen lips, shortness of breath, reddening of the skin, nausea and diarrhea. Here the symptoms appear within a few seconds or minutes. This is why this reaction is also called an immediate reaction. It is typical of many allergies and is much faster than the late reaction. The most extreme form of the immediate reaction is anaphylactic shock: Here the blood pressure drops, the heartbeat accelerates, and there is difficulty in breathing. It can even lead to respiratory failure and cardiovascular collapse. Then action must be taken as quickly as possible. It is best to call the emergency doctor immediately. As a first aid measure, remove the trigger if possible. For example the bee sting. Then lay the person down and raise their legs to support the circulation. In the event of unconsciousness, the patient is brought into a stable lateral position. In the event of respiratory or cardiac arrest, resuscitation must be started, i.e. with chest compressions and ventilation. Many allergies occur at a young age. Often the symptoms are particularly bad in the little ones. Later on, the immune system becomes somewhat sluggish. Often the allergies subside, and sometimes they go away completely. Frequent allergies (film sequence 4:10 min) About 16 percent of Germans suffer from hay fever that is every sixth! The pollen from trees and grass is mainly responsible. The symptoms appear at about the same time every year, namely when the responsible plant releases its pollen. There are therefore pollen calendars for allergy sufferers. They indicate when a pollen load can be expected. You can find out even more precisely today on the radio or on the Internet. Often times, hay fever is seen as a nuisance, but not really dangerous. Treatment is important, however, as the allergy can spread to the lungs. Doctors call this change of floor from the upper to the lower airways. Then an allergic asthma develops with coughing and shortness of breath.

12 46 / Allergies Filmtext Page 4/6 People suffering from hay fever often suffer from a food allergy. The food is often a plant closely related to the cause of hay fever. For example, people who are allergic to birch pollen are often intolerant to apples. This is called a cross allergy. The second most common allergy is to house dust. One should actually say more precisely against the excrement of the house dust mite, which is in the dust. Several thousand mites can be found in one gram of house dust. The small arachnids feed mainly on skin flakes and hair. They mostly live in beds, pillows, and carpeting. In third place of the allergies is the animal hair allergy about one in ten is affected. But here, too, the name is actually misleading, because the animal hair is not the problem. But protein compounds that occur in the skin flakes, sebum, saliva, urine or faeces of animals. The incidence of food allergies has increased significantly over the past few decades. Scientists suspect that this has something to do with the more varied food available today. We can buy food from all over the world. A few decades ago, a lot was unknown or not available in our country. We are also eating more and more ready meals and treated foods. The additives it contains can also be problematic for the immune system. Neurodermatitis is a skin disease that can have an allergic cause. It shows up as very itchy redness, blisters and crusts on the skin. The first symptoms of neurodermatitis often appear in the first few months of life. The infants then have a crust-like rash on their head, the cradle cap. Around ten percent of children suffer from neurodermatitis. If the cause is an allergy, hay fever or asthma often comes along later. In addition to allergies, there are also so-called pseudo-allergies. One speaks here of an intolerance or intolerance. The symptoms are the same, but the immune system is not responsible for pseudo-allergies. It is often triggered by additives such as colorings or preservatives or naturally occurring compounds in food, such as histamine. It can be found in the human body, but also in smoked foods such as salami and in certain types of fish. In the event of an allergy, histamine is released by the immune system. In the case of a pseudo-allergy, it is ingested through food. The result is the same. Evidence and treatment options (film sequence 3:30 min) Andreas is back at the doctor. Today we want to finally find out what he's allergic to. The first step is the so-called anamnesis. The doctor asks many questions. He wants to know the exact history of the disease because it contains clues that can be important for diagnosis and treatment. Then comes the skin test. Extracts from various allergens are placed on the arm. The skin is then lightly scratched so that the substances get into the epidermis

13 46 / Allergies film text page 5/6. After 20 minutes you can see the result. Redness and swelling are indications of an allergy. With Andreas you can see a reaction at the point where an extract from birch pollen was applied. A blood test is done to confirm the diagnosis. In the event of an allergy, the immune system produces antibodies that can be assigned to an allergen.Andreas will find out that he has antibodies against birch pollen in his blood. Another means of proof is the provocation test. This is where the suspected trigger is administered. For example, by inhaling or swallowing it. Then you wait to see if an allergic reaction occurs. So now we know what's wrong with Andreas. The only thing missing is the right treatment. The most effective therapy against allergies is desensitization. The term means something like making insensitive. The body is repeatedly exposed to the allergen. The dose is increased from time to time. In this way, the immune system can gradually get used to the allergens and the exaggerated reactions to the allergen subside. The treatment solutions are specially made for each patient. They can be given as drops or injections. Desensitization provides very good results for allergies affecting the respiratory tract. For example, when Andreas had hay fever. But it also helps with bee and wasp venom allergies. The duration of treatment depends on the severity of the allergy and the age of the patient. However, desensitization should be completed after three years at the latest. Many medications can also be used to treat allergies. While they do not cure, they do help to relieve symptoms. For example, certain medications can reduce the release of histamines and other substances in the body that are responsible for the symptoms of allergies. Others ensure that the histamine can no longer work in the body. These are the antihistamines. They block the histamine. This can also help alleviate the symptoms. Causes and rules of conduct (film sequence 4:00 min) Allergies are increasing all over the world. But why? We don't know exactly, but there are different theories. It has been found that allergy rates are higher in areas with high levels of air pollution. However, the air pollutants do not trigger an allergy themselves Scientists suspect that they promote the development. The pollutants damage the mucous membranes and the allergens can penetrate more easily. In addition, the pollutants can change the allergens, making them more dangerous for the immune system. It is noticeable that allergies occur more frequently in some families. If one of the parents is allergic, the allergy risk for the child increases to around 30 percent. If both parents are allergic, the risk increases to around 50 percent. If both parents have the same allergy, it is already 70 percent. However, it is not an allergy that is inherited, only the predisposition to it. However, it is not yet known which genes are responsible for the development of allergies.

14 46 / Allergies Filmtext Page 6/6 An important reason for the increase in allergy cases is probably our lifestyle. Nowadays we live in a very clean, hygienic environment. As a result, our immune system now has significantly less to do than before. This insufficient demand can lead to the misdirected immune reactions. The immune system is looking for new enemies. Scientists call this the hygiene theory. An interesting observation supports this theory. Children who grow up on a farm are much less likely to have hay fever than other children. It is believed that certain pathogens that occur in cow stalls train the immune system and thus prevent the development of an allergy. What can you do if you have an allergy? In any case, you should go to the doctor and get treatment. Andreas did that absolutely right. Otherwise, it makes sense to avoid the allergen. For people allergic to pollen, the following applies: If the pollen levels are high, do not take walks in nature and keep the lawn in front of the house short. In rural areas, pollen concentrations are particularly high in the morning and in the city in the evening. That is why you should ventilate the apartment in rural areas between 7pm and midnight, and in the city between 6am and 8am in the morning. If you are allergic to house dust, you should regularly remove the dust without stirring it up, for example with a damp cloth. It is best not to have carpets in the house. The bedroom should only be heated a little. It is best to wash bed linen regularly and as hot as possible. Vacuum cleaners should have special filter systems against allergens, and you should ventilate regularly to keep the humidity in the rooms low. In the case of an animal hair allergy, increased hygiene is not sufficient in most cases. It makes most sense to avoid contact. Allergies are now almost commonplace. But if you know about them and do something about them, then you can live with them quite well.