What is a bronsted lowry base

Brønsted definition

after Johannes N. Brønsted (1879 to 1947), Danish chemist and Thomas M. Lowry (1874 to 1936), English chemist
Synonym: Definition according to Brønsted and Lowry, acid-base theory according to Brønsted
English: Brønsted – Lowry definition

1 definition

As Brønsted definition is an acid-base concept that was developed by two independent chemists, Brønsted and Lowry. It says that an acid, as a particle, is capable of producing protons (H.+) to be transferred to a reaction partner (base).[1]

Are the terms acid and base not further specified or assigned to a particular theory, they mostly refer to the Brønsted model.

2 theory

Brønsted found that when considering acids and bases it is helpful to include the solvent (e.g. water) in the definition. The Swedish chemist recognized that on the one hand the occurrence and on the other hand the transfer of protons is an essential characteristic of these processes. Based on this, he defined the following claims:[2]

  • Proton donors: particles and thus acids that are able to donate protons.
  • Proton acceptors: reaction partners and thus bases that are able to accept protons.

Brønsted already recognized that no free protons exist in a chemical reaction. So when a substance gives off a proton, there has to be a second substance on site that absorbs this proton again. In order to be able to consider an acid-base reaction quantitatively, a protolysis equilibrium must be established accordingly. Brønsted's proton transfer equilibria are always conjugated acid-base pairs, such as:[2]

3 sources

  1. ^ Chemie.de, definition according to Brønsted and Lowry
  2. 2,02,1"Chemistry for Medicines" - A. Zeeck et. al., Urban & Fischer-Verlag, 7th edition