Is capoeira efficient in MMA

Attention Attention 2 weeks of free training

 

 

Capoeira

is aBrazilian Fight dance, whose origin is on the AfricanNíGolo ("Zebra dance") is traced back. Capoeira was made in during colonial timesBrazil from fromAfrica embarked slaves practiced and developed. Nowadays a distinction is made between two main directions: The "old"Capoeira Angola and the "modern"Capoeira regional. The African elements merged in the Capoeira Regional over the years additionally with influences from other martial arts like z. B.WrestlingJiu Jitsu andWushu. At this time (around 1970s) many of today's characteristic acrobatics, such as high, twisted jumps or somersaults, also developed; even if many of the low-level acrobatics at least tended to already exist.

In terms of content, Capoeira is characterized by three levels: the fight, the music and the "Roda" (Portuguese "Circle") as a social framework in which the struggle takes place. The fighting techniques themselves are characterized by extreme flexibility; there are many spinning kicks, jumped-in kicks, andacrobatics. Music is traditionally played during the fights, this follows an endless rhythm in different variations; In addition, suitable songs, often from the time of slavery, are sung.

The fights always take place in a roda. This roda consists of a circle of capoeiristas and the musicians. Always two Capoeiristas fight in the Roda, whereby in Capoeira the term "game" is used for a fight. A roda is particularly influenced by the archaic force inherent in capoeira.

 

 

Capoeira regional

At the beginning of the 20th century there was a great leap forward in the history of Capoeira. Dissatisfied with the prejudices and marginalized existence that surrounded Brazilian martial arts at the time, the Bahian, known under the pseudonym “Mestre Bimba” (1900 - 1974), decided to create a variant of traditional capoeira, which he then called “Luta” regional Baiana "- or" Capoeira Regional "for short.

Mestre Bimba was concerned about the combative efficiency of Capoeira, which he thought was slowly beginning to lose itself in the hustle and bustle of tourists. Because most of the Capoeiristas of Salvador presented themselves to tourist groups at that time, which meant that Capoeira turned into a kind of acrobatic show and thus far removed from its original purpose as a martial art. Therefore, Bimba, who was already known and loved as a fighter in the ring in the whole of the Brazilian northeast in the 1930s, decided to create a capoeira method, which on the one hand was to emphasize the combative side of the liberation struggle of the slaves, on the other hand to use various techniques of other martial arts, such as jiu-jitsu and boxing. Thus the Capoeira of Mestre Bimba, while preserving the traditional Capoeira movements and ancient rituals, became a more aggressive, less acrobatic fight - with higher and faster kicks. The training included combinations of kicks with slaps of the hands and elbows. Falling - by losing balance or on purpose - had a special meaning in Capoeira Regional.

The innovations of the Bahian Capoeira were not only content with the technical aspect, they also extended to the educational field.

In other words: Mestre Bimba felt that it was necessary to systematize the teaching of Capoeira, because so far he had only instructed his students in a very informal way in outdoor groups. So he created a teaching methodology, which consisted of a course in "Capoeira Regional", could be expanded by "Specializing courses" - "Attack and Throwing Techniques" - "Teaching Sequences" (eight sequences of punches and counter-blows, which are practiced in pairs to learn the basic movements of Capoeira).

 

Capoeira de Angola

Brazilian "Arte Popular" (folk art), which has its roots in Africa, but only became known in Brazil as "Capoeira de Angola" (Capoeira from Angola) or "Capoeira Mãe" (Capoeira mother). A mixture of martial arts and dance , which presents a series of symbolic and significant jumps, attack and defense blows as well as ritual figures in their practice.

One of its probable roots, according to research by anthropologists, is an African ritual known as "N’golo" and practiced by the "Mocópis" of the Bantu nation. This ritual was inspired by the dance of the zebras, who only use their legs and head in a fighting. In the practice of the young Mocópis, this fight had a special background: it often involved marrying a chosen woman - whoever won such a fight using only legs and head could marry her without paying the usual dowry pay.

In Brazil, on the basis of the mixture of descendants of different African tribes as working slaves, Capoeira was incorporated into the manners and customs of all black slaves - mixed with all their cultures and also absorbed cultural elements and regional characteristics of the Brazilians. For example, the use of the "Berimbau" as a rhythm instrument in Bahia or the razor in Rio de Janeiro and the parasol in Recife - currently associated with the regional "Frevo", which, however, has to some extent been associated with Capoeira in its history.

Capoeira story

 Some see its emergence in the country, between the extensive sugar cane plantations, where the clearings cut into the adjacent forest were the channels for the escape of rebellious black slaves or they were used for gathering in their free hours. “The very word Capoeira itself reveals its connection with the rural ambience,” says the anthropologist Oderp Serra from the “Universidade Federal da Bahia”. But there are also others who claim just as credibly that Capoeira emerged from the urban milieu, where that innocent game of fazendas first developed into a martial art. “It is undoubtedly urban,” confirms the Bahian researcher Waldeloir Rego, author of a classic on the subject, “we just cannot say whether Capoeira comes from Salvador or Rio de Janeiro. It probably developed simultaneously in both cities - and also in Recife (Pernambuco).

 


The Portuguese began to land black slaves in Brazil around 1548, and for the next three centuries these imported slaves were primarily from the Bantu linguistic tribe, including the "Quimbundo language". This group unites the other "Angola, Benguela, Mozambique, Canbinda and Congo". “They were peoples from small kingdoms with a reasonable knowledge of agricultural techniques, whose important characteristic was a very plastic vision of life, with a great capacity for cultural adaptation,” explains the anthropologist Oderp Serra. “In Brazil, these different ethnic groups, formerly rivals, came together through their common enslavement and formed an African culture, which has brought significant and very strong basic features into the Brazilian cultural heritage - among others in dance, music and the movements of the body, as in the case of Capoeira ”.

There is no evidence in Brazilian historical research to this day that Capoeira originated in Africa. With a probability bordering on certainty, it was developed by slaves in Brazil. And that's why Capoeira is absolutely real and justifiably Brazilian! Records containing dates of its first appearance vary between 1578 and 1632 - so there are no precise details. It is known, however, that Capoeira emerged as an instrument of liberation against a prevailing system of oppression, in which the black man was treated like an object, his children like small animals and the black women like mother animals with their brood.

The emergence of Capoeira mixes with the history of the resistance of the black slaves in Brazil. Also because most of the authors who took up the liberation of slaves associate the emergence of Capoeira with the emergence of the first “quilombos” (refuges for escaped slaves). Some of them refer in particular to the “Quilombo de Palmares” (which accommodated a large number of people, around 25,000, and was destroyed in 1694) as the cradle of Capoeira.

In the past century, the most important port cities in Brazil, such as Salvador, Recife and Rio de Janeiro, were a noisy chaos of people. And the figure of the "Escravo de ganho" (the money-making slave) was quite a common sight in the metropolitan areas - slaves, who were allowed by their masters to offer their services on the street, and who then had to give their master a predetermined percentage of their earnings . Because they had nothing more to offer than their physical strength - to haul furniture, any goods, or garbage - many of them had their preferred location near the port. And it was not long before these groups organized themselves under the leadership of a strong fellow sufferer, to whom they gave the title “Capitão”, because he was an expert in Capoeira.

According to the historian Carlos Eugênio Líbano Soares, who examined the lists of imprisoned slaves of the 19th century, the years between the arrival of the royal family in 1808 and the abdication of the first emperor in 1831 were marked by the “terror of capoeira” in Rio de Janeiro. And Bahia did not stand back. Salvador was a powder keg - the black slaves instigated more than thirty riots during this period. In the big cities it was normal for enormous numbers of outcasts to organize themselves into gangs, as Latin Americans do in the US today.

(At this point I would like to add the following to explain: “Capoeira” was understood to mean the person of the fighter himself in ancient times - and his art was called “Capoeiragem”. Today the fighter is called “Capoeirista” and the word “ Capoeira “to name this martial art).

Ancient “Capoeiristas” and their unforgotten exploits are indelible in the memory of our people. Various official edicts tried to do away with the illegal capoeira fights. A decree of March 16, 1826 by the general manager of the police in Rio de Janeiro ordered that all slaves found playing “Capoeira” should be arrested immediately and punished with one hundred lashes. Bahian capoeiristas fought for our freedom on the good earth of all saints. In Rio de Janeiro in June 1828 the Capoeiristas were of great help against the mercenary troops of Germans and Irish who revolted and panicked the population.

The São Paulo Chamber of Deputies responded to a request made by the President of the Province of the same name, Colonel of the Militia Rafael Tobias de Aguiar, on January 24, 1833, by passing a decree that anyone who practices Capoeira in public - in the case that it was a free person to be punished with three days imprisonment and a fine of between one thousand and three thousand Réis - in the event that it was a slave, the penalty of 24 hours imprisonment and between 25 and 50 lashes is to be determined.

The picture by Johan Moritz Rugendas with the title “Capoeira game or war dance” from 1835 is considered to be the first precise illustration of Capoeira. In this picture, two black men take up a fighting position, while another in a sitting position beats a drum that he holds between his legs. Other blacks, men and women, watch the fight (or game) go on before their eyes.

On July 10, 1843, Marshal Miguel Nunes Vidigal, capoeira master, who is described as “Major Vidigal” in the book “Memórias de um Sargento de Milícias” (Memories of a militia sergeant), a Brazilian classic, died in Rio de Janeiro Literature. In the course of the 19th century, capoeira became a clear expression of the situation of blacks in Brazil. The changes in the economy and politics of the empire also set in motion a comprehensive process of de-slavery. We remember that as early as 1850 the " Law Eusébio de Queirós “had forbidden the transport of black slaves to Brazil. The logic of the world economic system, including the Brazilian one, replaced blacks with immigrant farm workers from Europe, and this led to an unavoidable displacement of blacks into a marginalized existence. Capoeira flourished as a result of this development, and there are innumerable newspaper reports of the past Century, which the adventures of the "Capoeiras" (in this case the "Capoeiristas" are meant) exploited widely.

At that time, Capoeira not only gathered ex-slaves and their sons around it - important personalities from society were also there. Capoeira slowly found its way into political life and was finally used on a broad front as a weapon between the opposing factions that faced each other during the time of the empire and in the beginnings of the republic - especially in the cities of Rio de Janeiro and Salvador , Recife and São Paulo. The capoeira men were hired to intervene in unwanted marches, sabotage elections or guarantee the safety of politicians.

In Bahia in 1864, various Capoeira groups disintegrated because of the recruitment of their members for the Paraguay War, where they actively intervened in the fighting against the opposing mercenary troops.
After the liberation of slaves in 1888, as we know, the end of the slave regime still meant no acceptance of the ex-slaves in white society. On the contrary, various aspects of Afro-Brazilian culture now experienced a rigorous repression, such as Capoeira in Rio de Janeiro and the “Candomblé” (Afro-Brazilian religion) all over Brazil - especially in the northeast.

Above all, white society saw Capoeira as a kind of rebellion, which had already been used as a weapon in countless escape attempts during slavery; it became a symbol of the resistance of black ex-slaves against oppression. The republican government, installed in 1989, continued the demonization of capoeira and associated it directly with crime. In decree 847 of October 11th, 1890 with the title “Dos Vadios e Capoeiras“ (On thugs and capoeiristas) it says under Article 402: “To do physical exercises in the streets or public places, which are known as“ Capoeiragem ”, is punished with a sentence of between two and six months in prison. Sole paragraph: It is considered an aggravating circumstance if the person concerned belongs to a group or gang of capoeiristas. For the bosses or heads of such a group, the penalty is doubled ”.

In March 1892, in the capital São Paulo, a couple of "bats" (police officers in civilian clothes of the era) mistreated newly recruited soldiers of the army. Capoeira soldiers routed the police when they stood up for their comrades. On the occasion of an Armada revolt in September 1893, groups of army capoeiristas fought against naval capoeiristas. In 1907 the first attempt to institutionalize “Brazilian gymnastics” appeared under the title “O Guia da Capoeira” (The Capoeira Leader), the author of which, an army officer, found it better not to reveal his name because of the ruling class Prejudices of the time - he hid behind the initials ODC In 1908 the whole capoeira guild vibrated with the victory of the “Moleque Círiaco” over the “Count Koma”, a high officer in the Japanese navy and jiu-jitsu champion whom the Japanese considered invincible. The Brazilian “Ciriaco” gave the champion from Nippon a huge “Rabo-de-arraia” (stingray tail - capoeira blow) to the head that he was thrown over two rows of chairs and passed out behind with a bleeding nose. Years later, a sailor, capoeirista from a club in São Paulo, was involved in a street fight with the police when his ship was anchored in New York.He threw a total of eight powerful policemen onto the asphalt, one after the other, and managed to sneak aboard his ship, where he explained to his comrades that he did not even need the "Sardinha" (sardine = razor), to apply the decisive blow of the "Corta-Jaca" (cut in the Jaca fruit = razor in the belly).

The Brazilian Capoeira fight is slowly being treated as a national sport, and the first investigations into its value as a method of self-defense and for gymnastics are appearing. In 1928 Annibal Burlamaqui published the “Gymnastica Nacional” (National Gymnastics), processed methodically and according to regulations, and in 1945 Inezil Pena Marinho, a sports teacher, published “Subsídio para o Estudo da Metodologia do Treinamento da Capoeiragem” (aid for the study of training Methodology of capoeira).

Mestre Bimba and Mestre Pastinha are considered the greatest names in the history of Capoeira worldwide. It should be emphasized that the "regional" (modified from the "traditional", innovative teaching method of Mestre Bimba) triggered a violent dispute within Capoeira fans, because various traditionalists among them consider the innovations of Mestre Bimba as a de-characterization of traditional martial arts . The debate began in the 1930s and continues to this day, under the theme of "true Capoeira" - and what changes can be introduced without violating the principles and traditions of Capoeira.

With Mestre Bimba, Capoeira gains institutional space in society. The master received the support of the students of the “Universidade de Salvador”, who participated in the systematic realization of his ideas and also in the formulation of his teaching method. Mestre Bimba founded the first Capoeira Academy in 1932 - as "Centro de Cultura Física e Luta Regional da Bahia" - he taught Capoeira in barracks and in 1953 presented a group of his best students to the President Getulio Vargas.

 

 

Capoeira regional

At the beginning of the 20th century there was a great leap forward in the history of Capoeira. Dissatisfied with the prejudices and marginalized existence that surrounded Brazilian martial arts at the time, the Bahian, known under the pseudonym “Mestre Bimba” (1900 - 1974), decided to create a variant of traditional capoeira, which he then called “Luta” regional Baiana "- or" Capoeira Regional "for short.

Mestre Bimba was concerned about the combative efficiency of Capoeira, which he thought was slowly beginning to lose itself in the hustle and bustle of tourists. Because most of the Capoeiristas of Salvador presented themselves to tourist groups at that time, which meant that Capoeira turned into a kind of acrobatic show and thus far removed from its original purpose as a martial art. Therefore, Bimba, who was already known and loved as a fighter in the ring in the whole of the Brazilian northeast in the 1930s, decided to create a capoeira method, which on the one hand was to emphasize the combative side of the liberation struggle of the slaves, on the other hand to use various techniques of other martial arts, such as jiu-jitsu and boxing. Thus the Capoeira of Mestre Bimba, while preserving the traditional Capoeira movements and ancient rituals, became a more aggressive, less acrobatic fight - with higher and faster kicks. The training included combinations of kicks with slaps of the hands and elbows. Falling - by losing balance or on purpose - had a special meaning in Capoeira Regional.

The innovations of the Bahian Capoeira were not only content with the technical aspect, they also extended to the educational field.

In other words: Mestre Bimba felt that it was necessary to systematize the teaching of Capoeira, because so far he had only instructed his students in a very informal way in outdoor groups. So he created a teaching methodology, which consisted of a course in "Capoeira Regional", could be expanded by "Specializing courses" - "Attack and Throwing Techniques" - "Teaching Sequences" (eight sequences of punches and counter-blows, which are practiced in pairs to learn the basic movements of Capoeira).

 

Capoeira de Angola

Brazilian "Arte Popular" (folk art), which has its roots in Africa, but only became known in Brazil as "Capoeira de Angola" (Capoeira from Angola) or "Capoeira Mãe" (Capoeira mother). A mixture of martial arts and dance , which presents a series of symbolic and significant jumps, attack and defense blows as well as ritual figures in their practice.

One of its probable roots, according to research by anthropologists, is an African ritual known as "N’golo" and practiced by the "Mocópis" of the Bantu nation. This ritual was inspired by the dance of the zebras, who only use their legs and head in a fighting. In the practice of the young Mocópis, this fight had a special background: it often involved marrying a chosen woman - whoever won such a fight using only legs and head could marry her without paying the usual dowry pay.

In Brazil, on the basis of the mixture of descendants of different African tribes as working slaves, Capoeira was incorporated into the manners and customs of all black slaves - mixed with all their cultures and also absorbed cultural elements and regional characteristics of the Brazilians. For example, the use of the "Berimbau" as a rhythm instrument in Bahia or the razor in Rio de Janeiro and the parasol in Recife - currently associated with the regional "Frevo", which, however, has to some extent been associated with Capoeira in its history.

 Source: Brazil portal