What is thymine


Abbreviation: T, Thy
English: thymine

1 definition

Thymine As one of the four organic bases (nucleobases), it is a basic building block of DNA.

2 structure

As a 5-methyluracil, thymine is composed of an aromatic six-membered ring. In the ring structure, two nitrogen atoms substitute carbon atoms 1 and 3.
To the carbon atoms C2 and C4 are bound oxo groups, at the C5-Atom there is a methyl group.

3 function

In the double-stranded molecules of the DNA double helix, thymine can be found via the C.4Hydroxy group and the N3-Atom form two hydrogen bonds with an opposing adenine molecule.

About the N1-Atom of the six-ring can send thymine to the C1-Atom of the riboses are glycosidically bound; one then speaks of a nucleoside, the thymidine. When it binds to deoxyribose, the nucleoside deoxythymidine is formed.

In further steps, the thymidine molecule can be attached to the C5-Atom of ribose are phosphorylated one or more times: A nucleotide is formed, namely TMP, TDP or TTP depending on the amount of phosphate.
Corresponding molecules are formed when the phosphate residues are bound to deoxyadenosine (dTMP; dTDP; dTTP).

4 Synthesis and Metabolism

The human organism is able to synthesize thymine itself; Since this metabolic pathway is very energy-intensive, the body can also reuse the pyrimidine derivative thymine via the salvage pathway, cut it out from nucleic acid molecules to be broken down and, if necessary, reintegrate it into DNA chains.

The thymine is completely broken down into carbon dioxide and water.