What is the architectural style of rome
approx. 500 BC Chr.-400 AD
The Roman Republic existed from around 500 to 27 BC. BC, while the art of the subsequent empire extends to the end of Western Rome in 476. Late antiquity of the 4th to 6th centuries is characterized by early Christianity and the influence of Byzantium (Byzantinism), since Constantine the Great moved the capital of his empire from Rome to Byzantium in 330.
Since 200 BC The Romans extended their rule to Greece and Asia Minor and adapted the Greek culture and architecture. At that time, numerous Greek artists and architects were working in Rome, who played a key role in the construction of important Roman buildings. For example, the Trajan's Forum under Emperor Hadrian was planned by the Greek Apollodor of Damascus.
The foundations for the development of Roman-ancient architecture consequently formed the Greek and Etruscan architecture: The Etruscan podium temple with its high staircase on the entrance side and the resulting directionality provides the template for the spatial understanding of Roman-ancient architecture. The axially symmetrical sequence of exterior and interior spaces is adopted for private houses as well as for public building complexes and the palaces of the imperial era (Palace of the Flavians, Rome, 81-96 AD).
During the reign of Emperor Augustus (31 BC to 14 AD), Greek art was transformed into Roman. Ancient Roman architecture is an imperial art that is worn by the rulers in Rome. The idea of representation is characteristic of the practical architectural approach of antiquity.
In contrast to Greek architecture, Roman architecture is massive, it is supported by strong walls and characterized by arches and vaults. The Greek column orders are implemented decoratively in ancient Roman architecture, but not the Greek temple. The newly constructed large buildings with their large interiors, which are missing in older cultures and are now made possible by new types of construction and materials, are important.
Different types of masonry were used in Roman antiquity. The ornamental decoration appears overloaded and loses its static necessity. Historical events are often depicted in reliefs (e.g. Trajan's Column).
Antiquity brought about a number of new construction tasks: These include engineering structures such as viaducts and aqueducts, the Roman theater (early example: Marcellus Theater in Rome, late 1st century BC) and the amphitheater, such as the 72-80 AD Created Colosseum in Rome.
Since the 1st century BC Triumphal arches are added; the best-known example is probably the Arch of Constantine (AD 312-15) with three arched gate openings. The arch plays an important role in ancient architecture as a constructive means and was used for representational purposes.
Constructive masterpieces are the large domed and cross vaults in thermal baths or the Pantheon created in 117-125 AD with its enormous interior. The antique round buildings, in particular the mausoleums of the imperial era, such as the Augustus mausoleum, 28 BC, should also be emphasized. Or the Castel Sant'Angelo, the tomb of Emperor Hadrian in Rome, completed in 139 AD.
The monumental imperial forums are of urban significance: The Trajan's Forum (built around 113-117 AD) is made up of a rectangular courtyard with an equestrian statue of the emperor and surrounded by porticos. This is followed by the five-aisled Basilica Ulpia and the Trajan's Column flanked by two library buildings. The basilica, which was used for court hearings and as a market hall, was later to serve as a model for the church building of the Christian basilica.
With the rise of Christianity and finally its recognition as a state religion in 391 under Theodosius I, new demands are placed on the sacred building. Constantine the Great takes the form of a basilica (Basilica of Constantine in Rome, completed after 313)
and central building and thus determines the new sacred structures that are to replace the ancient temple. The adaptation of the idea of God from the emperor to the monotheistic God of the early Christians can also be transferred to the application of imperial architecture to Christian sacred buildings.
Antiquity was to form the basis for diverse architectural developments in the centuries to come.
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The buildings by Gottfried Böhm, who studied architecture as well as sculpture, are characterized by their plastic forms and the expressive use of concrete. Later he also increasingly used the materials steel and glass.... more
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