Can take photos of celebrities with police officers

Why are paparazzi (in the usa) allowed to photograph celebrities without their consent?

Unfortunately, there is so much wrong with your teacher's explanation that it would be best to start from the beginning with German law (in the USA you would still have to distinguish between federal and state laws and that is beyond the scope of this).

First of all: No matter if celebrity or nobody, I am allowed to photograph everyone. There are very few exceptions to this, e.g. StGB §201a prohibits the unauthorized photographing of people in "a room that is specially protected from view" (e.g. an apartment) or the taking of helpless people (e.g. accident victims). Otherwise, photography is allowed.

According to KUrhG §22, only that is prohibited spread or publicly display of recordings without the consent of the person depicted. As long as I only look at the photos in my own private room, that's also allowed - but as soon as I show the picture to just one other person, it becomes illegal distribution.

There are a number of exceptions to KUrhG §22, which are described in §23: In addition to works of art, pictures of public meetings and people as "accessories", portraits of contemporary history are also excluded.

A distinction is made here between absolute and relative persons of contemporary history (roughly: more or less famous personalities), who accordingly have more or less right to privacy.

To expand on the example of 'blackhaya': The photo of the mayor of a small village (relative person in contemporary history) splashing around in the hotel pool may not be published while a federal defense minister (absolute person in contemporary history) lands on the front page.