What are covalent halides

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Area of ​​Expertise - Inorganic chemistry

Halide, also called halide, is a group name for compounds of the halogens (elements of the 17th group or VII. Main group of the periodic table: fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine) with more electropositive elements. Salt-like, covalent and complex halides can be distinguished depending on the respective bonding conditions. The salt-like halides (large differences in the electronegativities of the elements involved) form crystal lattices from cations and halide anions, have high melting and boiling points and, with a few exceptions, easily dissolve in water and other polar solvents. This class of compounds includes, for example, the alkali, alkaline earth and ammonium salts of the corresponding hydrohalic acids. Organic bases also react with hydrogen halides to form salts (hydrohalides). Covalent halides with lower electronegativity differences, e.g. silicon tetrafluoride, phosphorus (III) chloride, Couldn't accept input NUMBER ["3"] PCl3, can be regarded as acid halides. They have low melting and boiling points, dissolve in non-polar solvents, but are insoluble in polar solvents. Hydrolysis often takes place in water with the formation of the corresponding acids. Some of these halides also function as Lewis acids (including aluminum trichloride,, antimony (V) fluoride,). The group of halides with covalent bonds also includes hydrogen halides, halogenated hydrocarbons, including alkyl halides and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and interhalogen compounds.

In complex halides, halide ions occur as monodentate, anionic ligands, e.g. hexafluorosilicate,, tetrachloroaluminate,. Pseudo-halides do not contain any elements of the 17th group of the PSE, but show a chemical-physical reaction behavior comparable to the halides.

See also: pseudo-halides

Learning units in which the term is dealt with

phosphorus60 min.

chemistryInorganic chemistryChemistry of the elements

This learning unit gives an overview of the element phosphorus including properties, reaction behavior, detection, occurrence, extraction and use of the element as well as selected compounds.

boron60 min.

chemistryInorganic chemistryChemistry of the elements

This learning unit gives an overview of the element boron including properties, reaction behavior, detection, occurrence, extraction and use of the element as well as selected compounds.

Lecture experiments in inorganic chemistry45 min.

chemistryInorganic chemistry

This learning unit presents a number of interesting experiments from the field of inorganic chemistry and provides experimental procedures and explanations of the reactions that take place. With the help of photo series, the most important test steps can be traced in detail. The entire test sequence is documented by video recording for all tests.