What are the 3 functions of the cerebrum

Brain: structure and function: cerebrum

Last change:
Next update of Lydia Kloeckner • Medical editor

The cerebrum (telencephalon) is the largest and most highly developed part of the brain. Its cortex, which is two to four millimeters thick, is strongly folded - this increases the surface area many times over.

The cerebral cortex consists of the cell bodies of 19 to 23 billion Nerve cells, because of their gray color, too gray matter (Substantia grisea).

The cortex can be divided into various so-called cortical fields based on its functions:

  • In the sensory fields the brain processes sensory impressions.
  • With the motor fields it coordinates movements.
  • Thought and drive fields serve to think and remember.

The so-called Homunculus shows schematically where in the cerebral cortex the nerve cells responsible for the motor function and the sensory impressions are located. It turns out that the legs are represented in the upper third, the arms in the middle and the tongue and face muscles in the lower third of the cortex. Noticeable: In relation to their actual size, the nerve cells of the hands, head and throat occupy very large areas. This corresponds to the great importance and complex tasks of these body parts.

The nerve cell processes pull from the cerebral cortex into the interior of the cerebrum. They are surrounded by a so-called myelin sheath, which appears white and is named after the inside of the cerebrum white matter (Substantia alba) confers.

The cerebrum is divided into two largely symmetrical halves (Hemispheres)by the so-called bar (Corpus callosum) and other nerve fibers are connected to each other. Most of the functional centers are found in both hemispheres. However, some centers exist only once - such as the language center. Whether they are in the left or right hemisphere differs from person to person.

Each half of the brain can be divided into:

  • Frontal lobe, lies in the front of the brain; Movement, behavior
  • Parietal lobes, posterior upper; Sensations
  • Temporal lobes, located near the temples; Recognizing people, hearing
  • Occipital lobe (occipital lobe), on the back of the head; See