How are romantic visual novels performed


Gabriela Wacker

Shaun Tans A new country: Suggestions for reading a silent graphic novel in German lessons

Thematic orientation: a migration story in unmistakable images

As a remarkable graphic novel about a migrant's journey to a new country, at the same time as a revealing example of the 'legibility' of images and their representation of body language and emotions, as well as the 'picture in the picture', Shaun Tans can A new country from 2006 to be discovered and profiled for teaching. [1]

This 'silent' graphic novel focuses on a current topic, the story of a migrant who leaves his family behind to embark on a journey to a new, unknown country by ship in the hope of finding work there and his family to catch up to give her a better life. In six chapters, the departure of a family father from his old homeland, his separation from the family (wife and daughter) who have to stay behind, his boat trip, his crossing and his arrival in the new country as well as his sometimes arduous integration process are presented with complex images. In the new country, after initial communication and understanding problems, he meets locals who help him with integration, and other migrants who tell him their own stories. This migration story is crowned by a happy end, because the father of a family finds work after a while and earns enough money to be able to bring his family to join him. His daughter finally takes on the task of providing other migrants with orientation in the new country by explaining to them in turn written signs (a map) and acting as an interpreter.

With unmistakable pictures full of fantastic-surreal buildings, exotic animals and strange people in a dreamlike landscape and a big city littered with enigmatic signs, this silent graphic novel, which consists only of picture sequences and completely dispenses with text parts, as it were the recipient is immediately invited to decode and spell out the detailed images, for example at the reception of a silent film. The peculiarity of this graphic novel, the presentation of pictures without text or other explanations, corresponds obviously with the experience of alterity of the main character, a migrant who first has to orientate himself in the new country and find his way around in many ways. On the one hand, the strange images with unknown things, animals and signs represent a universal language that is relatively easy for the recipient to grasp regardless of specific language skills of a national language, on the other hand it shows in detail that the images are a have a complex structure of signs and specific codes that require a close look and study of the sign arrangement as well as a certain prior knowledge and socio-cultural embedding: "The visual language is linked to life experience, to the image horizon / image memory of the viewer, and thus also culturally and historically shaped . ”[3] Just as the migrant initially understands little, is only able to look at the strange signs in amazement and / or irritation, the recipient is, as it were, irritated, unsettled, but at the first visual 'reading' by the strange images also fell under the spell of the strange world of symbols that he has to decipher and learn anew. This results in a profound moment of identification for the recipient with the father of the family in the text-free graphic novel.

Moments of irritation and a multi-layered experience of alterity are just as central to the reception of this graphic narrative in the classroom as it is when reading a literary text. Spinner's aspects of literary learning can almost be carried over to the 'reading' of this graphic novel in particular and to central aspects of graphic storytelling in general. [4] The process of discovering picture reading, from which an understanding of the foreign world is developed, also promotes a combinatorial imagination. The graphic storytelling is also based on a specific storytelling technique that requires specific learning to see, as will be explained below.

This graphic novel Tans was awarded the Astrid Lindgren Prize in 2011. [5] In its laudation, the jury emphasized the uniqueness of Tan's imagery, as shown in The time is recorded with the following apt words: "His visual worlds represent a separate cosmos in which nothing is self-evident and everything seems possible." [6]

The 'ninth art' in German lessons

After a lengthy and critical examination of the potential dangers of comic book reading for young people since the early 1950s in the USA and Germany, according to which aspects such as the dangerous potential for violence and the vulgar eroticism in the comics in terms of content, the impairment of concentration and reading ability as well as the Promoting sensationalism in view of changed reading experiences were generally highlighted and critically discussed, [7] the modern comic has meanwhile been profiled as the 'Ninth Art' and is increasingly occupying literary studies and German didactics. [8] And not only because the spread of graphic novels has increased rapidly, but also because of their exclusive narration and appealing aesthetics. [9]

Mc Cloud initially understands comics to be "pictorial or other signs arranged in spatial sequences that convey information and / or create an aesthetic effect on the viewer." [10] [11] This definition emphasizes the spatial aspect of the drawings as well their intentional (sign) character. The “Graphic Novel” (German: graphic novella or visual novel) can be subsumed under the “comic” genre, the term first used in 1978 by Will Eisner on his cover of A Contract with God and Other Tenement Stories was used, whereby he emphasizes the literary claim of graphic narration in order to differentiate it from the sometimes frowned upon comics. [12] According to Wolfgang Hallet, a graphic novel is understood to be “a fictional novel-like long narrative that uses the method of representation of the comic.” [13] In contrast to the comic, the graphic novel is mostly a self-contained and self-contained narrative in contrast to the endless series, [14] which has a rather serious and complex plot and which is available in book format in bookstores and thus has a special materiality (in contrast to magazine paper). [15] The term graphic novel is therefore both a genre name and a media format. [16]

If you look at the history of comics, it is remarkable that the New York newspaper publishers Pulitzer and Hearst were able to increase their newspaper circulation by including comic strips in their newspapers, thus making their newspapers attractive to immigrant groups in order to attract a new readership open up. [17] Due to a lack of language skills, these immigrants were particularly interested in immigration topics in comic form. Migration is a topic in many graphic novels, including Satrapis Persepolis or in doucets New York Diary present. [18] Tan's graphic novel also fits into this tradition.

The graphic novel poses a particular challenge for reading A new country because it - as highlighted above - completely dispenses with text elements. [19] It proves its autonomy by the fact that the entire event can be understood in the sequence of images. The only text that introduces this graphic novel - and which could also be left out without impairing the understanding of the images - is the title “Ein neue Land”, which in turn deliberately leaves a lot open, such as concrete space-time relationships. Not least, this opens up an allegorical and utopian horizon for reading pictures. The sequence of images definitely has a narrative structure, as the spatial organization is also to be understood as a temporal structure, which in turn underlines the “narrative power of the sequence of images” [20], as Grünewald generally records with regard to the autonomous visual history.

The pictures speak for themselves, at the same time they can be made to speak from a didactic perspective. Since the pictures are complex and show a lot, they offer different interpretations, even if they are only partially understandable as one element in the respective picture sequence. The spatial encoding of images is usually done using so-called scanpaths (Scanning paths), [21] which are also accessible to seventh graders.

Special features of the graphic novel A new country: Techniques of alienation, moments of identification, the 'picture in the picture' and the legibility of the signs

Tan's graphic novel has some special features that should first be explained in order to then be able to show how the images can be made to speak - primarily from a didactic point of view.

The fictional frame of the story is partly through montage-like inserted reality particles (effet de réel), such as a grandfather clock, which underlines the authenticity of the story. [22] It is typical of the graphic novel genre that they refer to other media, e.g. photography. [23] The closeness of Tan's pictures to the media of photography and due to the coloring (brown and white) also to black and white film is evident. The layout in this graphic novel almost gives the impression of a photo album, as can be seen in the following example right at the beginning of the graphic novel. [24]

In the middle of the nine pictures there is a 'picture in picture' in the center, which shows the family and which corresponds to the family picture at the bottom right. [25] This montage of a child's picture painted by a child represents a further feature of authenticity within the documentary-looking images. Photographs of migrants on Ellis Island are also used as documentary templates. [26] Tan mentions this in his background information Post Commentthat his father moved from Malaysia to Australia in 1960. [27] Tan’s follow-up can be used like a stage direction to understand the images. In many other graphic novels a “self-reflective, autofictional narrative attitude” [28] can also be recognized. The protagonist also shows traits of Tan and is accordingly modeled according to his body language. [29]

Paintings are also transformed into a graphic novel image with great attention to detail. Tom Roberts painting Going South from 1886, which shows migrants on their way from Europe to Australia and hangs in the National Gallery of Victoria in Melbourne, serves as a template for a scene on the ship, as Tan does in his Post Comment holds on. [30] Tan's picture is almost identical to Robert's famous painting: [31]

The masterfully applied alienation technique in the graphic novel, which is associated with recognition effects due to similarity relationships, deserves special attention. The ship on the way to the new country, for example, is evidently reminiscent of the famous Titanic (but without taking up the theme of its sinking), as the following picture shows. [32]

On arrival in the new country, one also thinks to glimpse the silhouette of New York, a resemblance to New York's landmarks is almost unmistakable. The embedding of unknown characters in known contexts makes it much easier to understand the images. The new looks familiar, at least at first glance. On closer inspection, however, one recognizes a different arrangement with strange figures and animals, which only marginally resembles the Statue of Liberty and its backdrop. [33]

Borrowings from the editing technique of the film can be recognized if one pays attention to the perspectives and the associated zoom technique. Again and again there is a switch between detail or close-up and long shot. In the following example, the 'picture in the picture' (see the second row) again refers to the family history, whereby the previous history is kept present via the picture as a medium of memory. [34]

The central theme of the experience of alterity is captured not only by surreal scenes, but also in particular by the selected back perspective of the protagonist - as known from the romantic painter Caspar David Friedrich, [35] which gives a viewer the position, as it were who is confronted with strangeness. [36] By allowing the viewer of the picture to directly adopt the perspective of the migrant, the figure of seeing of seeing, which is particularly important in Romanticism, is called upon. This - as I said - promotes identification with the viewer and at the same time captures the view of the strange and presents it authentically: "The viewer does not remain distant, but plays along." [37] The way in which the father of the family perceives is visually shaped we too record his story visually and retrace his visual experiences. [38] What is particularly successful here is the immediate sight or “counter-view” of the strange being (a strange animal), as can be seen in the following picture. [39]

Signs, symbols, objects and strange (sometimes cubist) forms in the new country are equally incomprehensible and novel for recipients and the father of a family, which promotes identification with the protagonist and his situation. The symbolism of the city and the speechlessness of the protagonist as the first reaction to the new environment are repeatedly captured emphatically and expressively presented.

The surreal character of the pictures also takes on a romantic motif: The many characters that litter the city (including buildings, bridges and animals) as in the following picture, [40] are reminiscent of hieroglyphic and cipher script as it is prominent in the Romanticism as nature's cipher - for example at Novalis and ETA Hoffmann - is being negotiated. [41] As a result, the new land almost contains the paintwork of a lost paradise or an Atlantis myth, as it is often portrayed as the Golden Age in Romanticism. [42]

The problem of communication is a common theme: In order to be able to communicate, various' visual languages' are presented within the pictures, sometimes the simplest sign language when the migrant draws up a bed in order to receive an offer for an overnight stay: the 'picture in the picture 'again represents a reductionist sign language aimed at general comprehensibility, as can be seen in the following picture. [43]

The father later learns the language of the new country with the help of pictures. [44] On a meta level, the silent graphic novel repeatedly addresses the vital priority of language skills and communication skills, important building blocks of successful integration, as the following picture illustrates: [45]

Emotions are captured and moods evoked in impressive ways, such as when the family man describes his situation immediately after arrival and receives a passport. [46]

Different narrative levels are marked by the functional use of the so-called gutter (hiatus, gutter) with color changes. For example, flashbacks can be seen through a change of colors, which makes the previous stories of other migrants recognizable, who at the same time become narrators, so that the narratological perspective changes. [47] "These insertions are, so to speak, first-person narratives." [48] The coloring also influences the emotional mood and perception of the images when the migrants' stories of violence and oppression are presented in black and white. [49]

In this sequence of images, the 'picture in the picture' is the theme again, initially the passport with a picture that authenticates the young girl. The book is also considered as an educational medium. The book is stolen from the girl when she is obliged to do forced labor. The pictures are reminiscent of old photos, which makes the "(retrospective) narrative visible in the narrative" [50].

Links are also established between the various images by repeating motifs.Leitmotifs are, for example, the tentacle-like shadows, which symbolize the poverty and threat in the old country and which hover over the family as a threatening shadow to indicate their permanent endangerment. While the second shadow picture in the graphic novel immediately follows the first picture and the danger symbolized by the shadow is reinforced and exaggerated in a close-up view, [51] the third picture with the shadow in the background only follows two pages later, which is used to express how the mother with child who stayed behind is now exposed to the threat alone after the father's departure - again highlighted by the back perspective of the figures in order to let the viewer take the perspective of the figures. [52]

Another leitmotif is emphasized right at the beginning, as it is the very first picture: The folded sheet of paper, which depicts a flying bird and symbolically acts like a dove of peace and a bearer of hope. [53] It is also connoted as a carrier pigeon. The father gives it to his daughter when he says goodbye, [54] writes a letter on the ship, which he sends as a paper bird on its way, [55] furthermore he writes another letter with a folded bird and money to his family when he is his first Gets merit. [56] This is in turn answered with a letter and a paper bird from those who stayed behind. [57]

The already mentioned 'picture in picture', the family photo also functions as a leitmotif. The father takes it with him as a medium of remembrance when he travels where he keeps looking at it. In addition to its memory function, it serves as evidence for his hearing in the new country. [58] After the happy reunification of the family, the photo can be found in the living room in the background and, as it were, reflects the new family happiness of the faithful family sitting together at the table. [59]

The principle of repetition is not only used in the context of the leitmotif technique, but also to illustrate the serial production during factory work when the immigrant takes up his new job: the machine movements of his activity are shown in slow motion through a series of almost identical images on one page captured, whereby the small-step way of working and the monotony of the work is emphasized by the time expansion. [60] This also imposes its own rhythm on this special moment, as it were. This cycle may serve as an example of how a sense of time can be conveyed purely through image sequences.

At the same time, surreal moments dominate the portrayal of the dream-like city, for example with Alfred Kubin's fantastic novel The other side[61] (published in 1909 with 52 drawings by Kubin) is comparable, although it shows the nightmarish moment and the morbid mood in the foreground for the draftsman Kubin only in some pictures through the dark backdrops and the death motif. [62]

Didactic possibilities: from the empty space to the occasion to write

The highlighted features of the graphic novel can be worked out successively with the students. This makes it clear that metafictional concepts (the 'picture in the picture', seeing the sight), special techniques (alienation effect, image montage, etc.) and terms (panel, gutter, leitmotif, back perspective, flashback, etc.) as with the Reading a literary text can be conveyed.

The arrangement of the panels (i.e. the individual images) and the space (hiatus, gutter, gutter) between the panels deserve special attention in this graphic novel. The transitions between the panels must be designed by the recipient himself / herself with “imaginative addition and interpretation” [63], whereby the gaps are filled. [64] By means of the imagination, creativity and empathy of the viewer, the scenes in the head are first filled with life: “The frozen moment is automatically expanded by the viewer into a movement process. [65] Such a construction of reality is therefore owed to the so-called induction of the recipient and can be combined with the didactic approach of productive hermeneutics, which initially relates to text reception, but can also be transferred to image reception. According to Günter Waldmann, according to the productive hermeneutics, it is the reader's task to fill areas of indeterminacy (with the term Roman Ingardens) and to appropriate the text using imagination in many ways: Including the literary horizon of understanding and experience and embedding it in contexts among other things [66] Accordingly, for Waldmann, who is interested in the reception theory of Wolfgang Isers and his work The implicit reader oriented, [67] texts initially unfinished, so that they only acquire their concrete literary existence through imaginative literary concretization by the recipient: the reader becomes, as it were, a co-author, as Novalis insistently demands: " 125. The true reader must be the extended author ... ”[68] Even in the process of understanding a graphic novel, the recipient becomes a co-author, [69] whereas the author acts as a kind of“ pointer ”[70] acts.

Since the gutters in the graphic novel represent classic gaps, it makes sense not only to have the images described individually but also to address the transitions between the panels. The numerous gaps between the panels and image sequences caused by the missing text invite the students to take an action- and production-oriented approach and to comment on the image semantics with the aim of deepening their intercultural and media rhetorical skills. A 7th grade is suitable as a target group. [71] A feedback sheet on the treatment of this graphic novel in a 7th grade at the grammar school shows that the pupils predominantly enjoy this medium, the topic of migration and activity and production-oriented tasks. [72]

Action and production-oriented additions through thought and speech bubbles (balloons), inserts (i.e. text integrated into images), onomatopoeia (noises) [73] and text boxes (captions) or add-on texts are suitable for easily comprehensible images. Longer narrative texts, on the other hand, are a good way of getting the more complex images to speak. Since many of the images in this graphic novel are particularly complex, they are particularly suitable for instructing the creation of longer texts (such as monologues and dialogues), which in turn do justice to their complexity. Image mapping is also a particularly suitable method. [74] In addition to detailed image descriptions, aesthetic and sensual-emotional approaches are particularly useful for decoding the images, since the empathy and identification with the protagonist opens up access to his emotional world, which in turn goes beyond the body language is visible. Through the formulation of inner monologues, letters, etc. about the figures and their visual representation, their inner world can be thematized, which can be explored through the sensitively depicted body language, through a precise analysis of gestures, facial expressions and poses, among other things. The scene in which the father actually receives a letter from his family could, for example, be used to motivate the students to write such a letter. [75]

Elsewhere it is shown how he himself writes and sends a letter, [76] the content of which can also be thematized through a creative task. In comparison to the tasks of creative interpretation, one can only guess what level of style and what tone these letters are appropriate for. In comparison to productive writing assignments for literary texts, there is no reference text. Nevertheless, the contents of the letters can be explored using combiners. At the same time, the creativity of the students is required to a great extent.

A rehearsal for pictures can also be used to examine the extent to which the picture story is based on a certain causality. For example, individual images can be removed so that they can be designed or verbalized. For example, the flashbacks can be emphasized. At the points where the characters begin to show their own life story in pictures, these life stories can be anticipated by the students by delaying the presentation of the pictures. Forms of reading delay according to Erich Frommer, which are well-known from German lessons, can therefore, in a modified form, serve as models for tasks in developing the graphic novel, as they can be transferred to the handling of images. [77] Just as fill-in-the-blank texts used in the context of reading delay, the omission of key passages, the rearrangement of text parts, etc. are intended to prevent automated reading, [78] accordingly in the graphic novel, for example, images can initially be partially or completely covered before they are in your must be discovered in all its complexity in order to prevent superficial viewing of the image. In this way, for example, strange beings such as animals can be accentuated in their otherness as pictorial elements if they initially remain hidden. A concentrated engagement with the pictures - comparable to reading close to the text - [79] enables the pupils to recognize the peculiarity and structure of the pictures. As attentive picture recipients, they also become co-producers of the pictures, even a kind of “fellow players” [80].

Following delayed viewing of images and filling of gaps with action and production-oriented tasks, the value of the silent graphic novel as a particular medium and the 'power' of images, which seem to get along without verbalization, can be discussed. The leading questions are to what extent the two media image and text are similar and different and to what extent spatial and temporal ideas are evoked in different ways by different media.

In Goethe's sense, editing the 'silent' graphic novel may not be counterproductive, but permissible, because: “Art is a mediator of the inexpressible; therefore it seems folly to try to convey it again through words. But if we try to do it, there is some gain for the mind that also benefits the exercising ability. ”[81] When dealing with the migration theme inherent in graphic novels in schools, one should keep in mind that pupils With their own migration background, the emotional representation in the graphic novel allows them to develop their own concern despite the distance due to the fictional medium.

[1] Tan (2008), first published in 2006 in Australia.

[2] Cf. Grünewald (2014) 42. Grünewald (2017) 304.

[3] See Grünewald (2014) 42.

[4] Spinner emphasizes the following as central aspects for literary learning: formation of ideas, subjective involvement and precise perception, perception of the linguistic design, comprehension of the perspectives of literary characters, understanding of the narrative and dramaturgical logic of action, conscious handling of fictionality, understanding of the metaphorical and symbolic mode of expression, the incompleteness of the formation of meaning and the ability for literary conversation (cf. Spinner (2006) 6-16).

[5] Cf. Grünewald (2017) 304.

[6] Shaun Tan receives Lindgren Children's Book Prize. In: Zeit online (2011).

[7] For more details on the legitimation discourse, see: Becker (2012) 5-13.

[8] See for example Baum (2010) 200-217, Schmitz-Emans (2012), Hallet (2012) 2-9, Ballis (2013) 20-25, Abraham / Sowa (2012) 4-19, Stein / Thon ( Ed.) (2013), Hochreiter / Klingenböck (2014), Wrobel (2015) 4-12, Abel / Klein (ed.) (2016), Korte / Knigge (2017).

[9] Cf. Hochreiter, Klingenböck (2014) 7f.

[10] Mc Cloud (2001) 17. Eisner defines the comic similarly as “sequential art” (cf. Mc Cloud (2001) 13).

[11] For Grünewald, a comic is “a fuzzy collective term for modern picture stories.” “Picture history means the more or less extensive series of narrative (narrative) images that form a unit in terms of content and composition and with written information can be connected as a text, language or sound ”(Grünewald, 1982, 33).

[12] Eisner (1978), see Eisner (1998). See Abel (ed.) (2016) 29ff. For marketing strategy and social distinction, see: Abel / Klein (2016) 159f.

[13] Hallet (2012) 4.

[14] Cf. Grünewald (2014) 18.

[15] See Abel / Klein (2016) 157. Dolle-Weinkauff (2014) 155.

[16] See Abel / Klein (2016) 156.

[17] See Abel / Klein (2016) 49.

[18] Cf. Abel / Klein (2016) 163. On the graphic novel Persepolis see the following article: Orlitsch / Poier (2015) 52-59.

[19] Cf. Grünewald (2017) 302.

[20] Cf. Grünewald (2014) 28.

[21] Cf. Abraham / Sowa (2012) 5.

[22] Fig. 1 according to Tan (2008) I, 1.

[23] See Abel / Klein (2016) 158.

[24] Fig. 1 according to Tan (2008) I, 1.

[25] Fig. 1 according to Tan (2008) I, 1.

[26] See Tan (2008) follow-up note.

[27] See Tan (2008) follow-up note.

[28] See Abel / Klein (2016) 158.

[29] Cf. Grünewald (2017) 302 and 305.

[30] See Tan (2008) follow-up note.

[31] Fig. 2: Tom Robert: Going South (1886), National Gallery Melbourne. See Tan (2008) II, 7.

[32] See Tan (2008) follow-up note. Fig. 3 according to Tan (2008) II, 12.

[33] Fig. 4 after Tan (2008) II, 11.

[34] Fig. 5 after Tan (2008) II, 33.

[35] See Böhme (2006).

[36] See the following picture: Fig. 6 according to Tan (2008) III, 11.

[37] Grünewald (2017) 303.

[38] Cf. Grünewald (2017) 302.

[39] Fig. 6 after Tan (2008) III, 11.

[40] Fig. 7 after Tan (2008) II, 21.

[41] See Rommel (1998).

[42] Cf. Mähl (19942).

[43] Fig. 8 after Tan (2008) II, 27.

[44] Cf. Tan (2008) III, 12 and 13.

[45] Fig. 9 after Tan (2008) III, 3.

[46] Cf. Tan (2008) II, 16-17.

[47] Cf. for example the story of the other family father who helps the immigrant, the main character, with integration: Tan (2008) III, 17-24.

[48] ​​Grünewald (2017) 305. See also: Thon (2013) 86 on the special narratological concept of flashbacks.

[49] Fig. 10 based on Tan (2008) III, 6 and 7.

[50] Grünewald (2017) 305.

[51] Cf. Tan (2008) I, 5 and I, 6-7.

[52] Fig. 11 after Tan (2008) I, 10.

[53] Cf. Tan (2008) I, 1.

[54] Cf. Tan (2008) I, 8-9.

[55] Cf. Tan (2008) II, 8-9.

[56] Cf. Tan (2008) V, 2-3.

[57] Cf. Tan (2008) V, 9.

[58] Cf. Tan (2008) I, 2; II, 1, II, 16.

[59] Cf. Tan (2008) VI, 2.

[60] Cf. Tan (2008) IV, 8.

[61] Kubin (20144).

[62] See especially Tan (2008) IV, 14-15.

[63] Cf. Grünewald (2014) 35.

[64] Cf. Grünewald (2014) 41. Grünewald (2005) 39-40.

[65] Cf. Grünewald (2017) 305.

[66] See Waldmann (1999).

[67] Iser (1972).

[68] Novalis (1797/98) 238 and 282.

[69] Cf. Grünewald (2014) 46.

[70] Grünewald (2017) 306.

[71] See the documented teaching unit of Matthias Ehmig, which Matthias Ehmig completed as the final thesis of his legal traineeship with me and which vividly documents the learning process of the seventh graders: Matthias Ehmig: Shaun Tans A new country. Getting a silent graphic novel to speak - production-oriented handling of comics in German lessons. A teaching attempt in grade 7. Unpublished, available in the library of the seminar for training and further education of teachers Tübingen (grammar school).

[72] See the documented teaching unit by Matthias Ehmig: Shaun Tans A new country. Getting a silent graphic novel to speak - production-oriented handling of comics in German lessons. A teaching attempt in grades 7, 25-28. Unpublished, available in the library of the seminar for training and further education of teachers in Tübingen (grammar school).

[73] See on the speech bubble, inserts and onomatopoeia in comics: Grünewald (2005) 44-45.

[74] Cf. Abraham / Sowa (2012) 14.

[75] Fig. 12 after Tan (2008) V, 9.

[76] Cf. Tan (2008) V, 2.

[77] See on text-delayed reading: Frommer (1981), Lindenhahn (1981).

[78] See Frommer (1981), Lindenhahn (1981).

[79] See Paefgen (2003) 191209.

[80] Grünewald (2017) 306.

[81] Goethe in Brocardicon. About art and antiquity quoted from Grünewald (2014) 19-20, footnote 9.


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Photo credits

Fig. 1, Fig. 3-13 according to Tan (2008) Fig. I, 1; II, 12; II, 11; II, 33; III, 11; II, 21; II, 27; III, 3; III, 6 and 7; I, 10; V, 9. Copyright Carlsen: Shaun Tan: A New Land © Carlsen Verlag GmbH. Hamburg 2008.

Fig. 2: Tom Robert: Going South (1886), National Gallery Melbourne.